Adolescents Need to Be Accepted and Fit in With Their Classmates Discussion

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B e r k E . Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a Peer Sociability in Play Nonsocial • Unoccupied, onlooker behavior Activity • Solitary play Parallel Play • Plays near other children with similar toys, but does not try to influence them • Associative play Social Interaction • Cooperative play © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child For Discussion: Development of Peer Sociability: Fostering Preschoolers’ Peer Relations Clint and Adrianne are the parents of 3-year-old Morgan. They currently live in the country, where Morgan rarely has opportunities to interact with other children. Clint and Adrianne are not sure if they should arrange a play group for Morgan or if they should simply wait until Morgan is old enough for kindergarten. On the basis of research presented in the text, how would you respond to Clint and Adrianne’s concern? What are the benefits of peer relations during the preschool years? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Cognitive Play Categories Functional Play Simple, repetitive motor movements, with/without objects 0–2 years Make-Believe Acting out everyday and imaginative roles Play 2–6 years Constructive Creating or constructing something Play 3–6 years Games with Understanding and following rules in play Rules © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. After 6 ▪ More, diverse peers ▪ Apply social and emotional knowledge B e r k E . Edition ● L a u r a Peer Sociability in Middle Childhood and Adolescence Child Development Ninth ▪ Perspective taking ▪ Prosocial acts ▪ Rough-and-tumble play ▪ Dominance hierarchy © Jorg Hackemann | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a E . Parental Influences on Peer Relations Direct Indirect ▪ Arrange informal peer activities ▪ Guidance on how to act toward others ▪ Monitoring activities ▪ Secure ▪ Authoritative parenting ▪ Parent–child play ▪ Parents’ own social networks © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Other Factors That Influence Peer Sociability ▪ Age mix ▪ Piaget: benefit from interaction with children equal in status ▪ Vygotsky: benefit from interaction with older peers ▪ Cultural values © Goh Siok hian | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a Child Development Ninth Edition ● Cultural Influence on Adolescents’ Amount of Free Time Figure 15.1 Adapted from Larson, 2001. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Thinking About Friendship ▪ Handy Playmate ▪ 4–7 years ▪ “Someone who likes you” ▪ Mutual Trust and Assistance ▪ 8–10 years ▪ Respond to each other’s needs and desires ▪ Intimacy, Mutual Understanding, and Loyalty ▪ 11–15 years and up ▪ Values, beliefs, and feelings © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Selectivity and Stability of Friendships ▪ More selective with age ▪ From 4–6 best friends in early adolescence to 1–2 in emerging adulthood ▪ Remarkably stable at all ages ▪ Younger children more dependent on environment © Hongqi Zhang | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Interactions Between Friends ▪ Compared to nonfriends, friends have more: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Positive interaction Emotional expression Prosocial behavior Self-disclosure ▪ Also more: ▪ Disagreement ▪ Competition ▪ Aggressive friends can lead to hostile relationship. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. ▪ Friends often similar in: B e r k E . ● L a u r a Resemblances Between Friends Ninth Edition ▪ Age, sex, ethnicity, SES ▪ Personality, popularity, academics, prosocial behavior, judgments of others (biases) Child Development ▪ Similarities increase supportiveness of friendship. ▪ Adolescents may explore identity by making different friends. © Picstudio | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. ▪ Boys: activities, status B e r k E . Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a Sex Differences in Friendships ▪ Friendships more variable ▪ Depends on gender identity ▪ Girls: emotional closeness ▪ Get together to “just talk” ▪ Danger of corumination ▪ Other-sex friends ▪ Either very popular or very unpopular adolescents © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Benefits of Friendships ✓ Opportunities to explore self ✓ Form deep understanding of another ✓ Foundation for future intimate relationships ✓ Help deal with life stress ✓ Can improve attitude and school involvement © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . Rejected • Rejected-aggressive • Rejected-withdrawn Child Development ● Edition Popular • Popular-prosocial • Popular-antisocial Ninth L a u r a Peer Acceptance Categories Controversial Neglected © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a E . Bullies and Victims Bullies Victims ▪ Most are boys ▪ Physically, relationally aggressive ▪ High social status, powerful ▪ Popular ▪ Eventually become disliked ▪ Passive when should be active ▪ Give in to demands ▪ Lack defenders ▪ Inhibited temperament ▪ Physically frail ▪ Overprotected, controlled by parents © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Peer Groups ▪ First peer groups ▪ Formed from proximity, similarity ▪ Adopt similar dress and behavior ▪ Peer culture can include relational aggression and exclusion. ▪ Cliques (small group of 5–7) ▪ Good friends ▪ Identified by interests, social status ▪ Crowds (several cliques) ▪ Membership based on reputation, stereotype © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child From Cliques to Dating ▪ Boys’ and girls’ cliques come together. ▪ Mixed-sex cliques hang out. ▪ Groups of several couples form and spend time together. ▪ Individual couples Figure 15.3 Adapted from Carver, Joyner, & Udry, 2003. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a Adolescent Substance Use Figure 15.4 Adapted from CAN, 2007; Johnston et al., 2010. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Peer Conformity ▪ Pressures to conform to: ▪ Dress, grooming, social activities ▪ Proadult behavior ▪ Misconduct ▪ Rises in early adolescence, but low overall ▪ More conformity in early adolescence ▪ Authoritative parenting helps resist pressures. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Television ▪ First view in early infancy ▪ 40% by age 3 months ▪ 90% by age 2 ▪ More time viewing television than most other activities © Djedzura | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Dangers and Benefits of TV Dangers Potential Benefits ▪ Aggression ▪ Ethnic, gender stereotypes ▪ Consumerism ▪ Time away from other activities ▪ Learning ▪ Educational shows ▪ Prosocial behavior © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a Child Development Ninth Edition ● Childhood TV Viewing and Later Aggression Figure 15.6 Adapted from Johnson et al., 2002. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Computers and Academic Learning ▪ Nongame use associated with literacy progress ▪ Small-group collaboration ▪ Homework ▪ Internet research ▪ Written assignment preparation ▪ Linked to improved academic achievement ▪ Worries about a “digital divide” ▪ Low-SES groups ▪ Boys vs. girls © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k ▪ Games ▪ Risks: attention problems, stereotypes, addiction ▪ Cell phones and Internet communication ▪ Risks: other users, isolation, vulnerable to exploitation Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a E . Computers and Social Learning Figure 15.8 Adapted from Lenhart et al., 2010. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Regulating Media Use ▪ U.S. regulations, V-chip ▪ Parents bear most of the responsibility for regulating children’s exposure to media content. ▪ Most parents provide cell phones to keep in touch with child. ▪ Some limit minutes, texting. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a E . Strategies for Regulating TV, Computer, and Cell Phone Use ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Limit TV viewing and computer use. Avoid using TV or computer time as a reward. Encourage child-appropriate media experiences. When possible, watch TV with children. Link TV content to everyday learning experiences. Model good TV and computer practices. Explain Internet technology and safety practices. Monitor and limit cell phone use. Use an authoritative approach to child rearing. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a Child Development Ninth Edition ● Possible Dangers of Close Online Friendships Figure 15.9 Adapted from Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2003. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Academic Achievement and Class Size ▪ Small (13–17) ▪ Regular (22–25) ▪ Regular with a teacher plus a full-time teacher’s aide ▪ Small-class children scored higher in reading and math achievement each year. ▪ More time spent teaching, less time spent disciplining © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Educational Philosophies Traditional Constructivist ▪ Teacher is sole authority ▪ Teacher does most of talking ▪ Students are passive. ▪ Uniform standards ▪ Students construct own knowledge ▪ Students are active. ▪ Teacher guides learning ▪ Teacher responsive to individual needs ▪ Evaluation by personal progress © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child New Philosophical Directions ▪ Based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory ▪ Social-constructivist classrooms ▪ Teachers and children as partners in learning ▪ Many types of symbolic communication in meaningful activities ▪ Teaching adapted to individual zone of proximal development ▪ Communities of learners © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child School Recess ▪ 7% of U.S. schools no longer provide recess to students, and many others have recess only once a day. ▪ Recess periods don’t subtract time from learning, they actually boost children’s learning capability. ▪ Regular, unstructured recess fosters children’s health and competence physically, academically, and socially. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Early Adjustment to School ▪ Positive peer and teacher relationships foster both academic and social competence. ▪ Social maturity → later academic performance ▪ Experts suggest readiness for kindergarten be assessed in terms of both academic and social skills. ▪ Preschool also an indicator © Takeisha Jefferson | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child School Transitions in Adolescence ▪ Grades and psychological well-being decline with each transition. ▪ Higher academic standards ▪ Less supportive teaching–learning environment ▪ Self-esteem issues ▪ Girls’ self-esteem drops sharply in middle school. ▪ Students with added strains are at greatest risk for self-esteem and academic problems. ▪ High school especially challenging for ethnic minorities © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a Child Development Ninth Edition ● School Transitions and Students with Problems Figure 15.10 Adapted from Roeser, Eccles, & Freedman-Doan, 1999. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a E . Helping Adolescents Adjust to School Transitions ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Parental involvement Monitoring Autonomy granting Emphasis on mastery, not grades Smaller units within large schools ▪ Fosters teacher relationships ▪ Greater extracurricular involvement ▪ Classes with familiar peers ▪ Minimize competition and ability-based treatment of students © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child For Discussion: Helping Students Adjust to School Transitions You have been invited to speak at a local school district about school transitions. Educators from elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools will be present for your discussion. What information will you include in your presentation? What should educators know about the effects of school transitions? How can schools help students adjust to school transitions? What educational practices or school characteristics tend to undermine student adjustment following a transition? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Teacher–Student Interaction ▪ Good teachers: caring, helpful, stimulating ▪ Too many use repetitive drill. ▪ Better achievement in stimulating classrooms ▪ Individual differences ▪ Well-behaved, high achievers get more © Matt Antonino | Dreamstime.com attention. ▪ Greater impact of attention on low-SES students ▪ Self-fulfilling prophecy © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Grouping Practices in Schools Elementary Schools High Schools ▪ Homogeneous ability groups ▪ Multigrade classrooms ▪ Cooperative learning ▪ Homogenous grouping (tracking) ▪ College prep ▪ Vocational ▪ General education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Children with Learning Difficulties ▪ Difficulties include: ▪ Mild mental retardation ▪ Low IQs ▪ Problems in adaptive behavior ▪ Learning disabilities ▪ 5–10% of children ▪ Law requires “least restrictive placement” ▪ Inclusive classrooms ▪ Full inclusion ▪ Not all students benefit from inclusion. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Parent–School Partnerships Schools can: ✓ Foster parent–teacher relationships. ✓ Show parents how to support children’s education. ✓ Build bridges to minority cultures. ✓ Develop assignments with parent role. ✓ Include parents in planning, governance. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Cross-National Research on Academic Achievement ▪ Chinese, Korean, and Japanese students top performers in reading, math, science ▪ Australia, Canada, Finland, the Netherlands, and Switzerland top performers among Western nations ▪ U.S. students fall behind academically. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Less challenging curriculum More fact-focused than reasoning/critical thinking Impact of No Child Left Behind mandates Less equitable educational system © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition Ninth Development Child Strategies to Improve U.S. Education ✓ Provide challenging instruction with realworld application. ✓ Strengthen teacher education. ✓ Support and encourage parents’ involvement in education. ✓ Invest in high-quality preschool education. ✓ Reduce school inequalities. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a Child Development Ninth Edition ● Average Math Scores of 15-Year-Olds by Country Figure 15.11 Adapted from Programme for International Student Assessment, 2009. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. ▪ U.S. high school graduates poorly prepared to work B e r k E . Edition ● L a u r a Vocational Preparation of Non-College-Bound Adolescents Child Development Ninth ▪ Lack vocational training ▪ Low-level high school jobs ▪ Work–study, vocational prep can help. ▪ Rare in U.S. ▪ Europe has model systems. © Monkey Business Images | Dreamstime.com © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k Child Development Ninth Edition ● L a u r a E . Magnet Schools ▪ School integration actually decreasing since late 1980s ▪ Racial divide deepening ▪ Inner-city, low-income schools disadvantaged ▪ Magnet schools one solution ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Emphasize special area of interest Rich academic offerings Voluntarily desegregated Student achievement enhanced © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. B e r k E . L a u r a ● Edition ▪ Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; ▪ Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images; ▪ Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Child Development Ninth This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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