City Colleges of Chicago Harold Washington College Data Sheet Project

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Homework 3: Part Practice (25 points) Purpose This assignment provides the experience of learning a task using part practice or whole practice. This assignment will cover a topic from chapter 9 and you will need some equipment to complete the assignment. I listed a variety of different types of equipment you could use to complete this assignment below. Background In the discussion of motor transfer in class, part practice as a physical rehearsal technique was introduced. Part practice is a way of simplifying a complex skill to enhance learning. In part practice, a complex skill is broken down and practiced in separate parts of the skill. This is in contrast to whole practice, where the task is practiced in its entirety. The effectiveness of part practice differs depending on the task to be learned. Part practice is efficient for serial tasks that are to be performed very slowly and where the components in the sequence do not interact with each other. When a task is very brief and programmed, part practice is usually not helpful and can even be detrimental to learning. In general, the more the individual components of a task interact with each other, the more ineffective part practice will be for learning. The following are instructions for one design of part practice for three-ball juggling: 1. Take one ball (or another item from the equipment list or anything you can throw and catch) and throw it from one hand to the other. Throw it from about waist height to a point level with the top of your head. 2. Hold one ball in each hand. Throw the right-hand ball in an arc toward your left hand. As it peaks, throw the second ball in an arc underneath it toward the right hand. Catch the first ball in your left hand and the second in your right. 3. Hold two balls in your right hand and one in your left. Throw the first ball in your right hand toward your left one. As it peaks, throw the ball in the left hand toward the right. As the second ball peaks, throw the final ball from your right hand. Catch none of the balls. 4. Do as before, but now catch the balls and throw them as the previously thrown ball peaks. Keep on repeating the sequence, and you are juggling. Equipment 3 tennis balls, juggling beanbags, scarves, or plastic grocery bags. Use any equipment you can throw and catch. Instructions You will complete 20 (or more if needed) trials of practice and a 5-trial retention test for the skill of three-ball juggling. You will practice in a different condition. If you already know how to juggle you can practice bounce juggling (in which the balls are bounced off the floor instead of tossed into the air). If a ball is dropped or quality is exceptionally poor, record an error and continue. In the data tables, indicate the number of errors committed per trial (use slash marks to tally errors as you go). For these tasks, the ball transfers must be discrete events—if you do not pause between transfers, mark an error and begin the trial again. The following section lists the criteria for judging quality. Condition 1—Part Practice You will practice four tasks, each of which corresponds to one of the steps presented in the background section. Task 1—One-Ball Toss and Catch One trial consists of five transfers from one hand to the other Good: Hands start at waist level. Ball reaches correct height. Ball falls to catching hand. Juggler focuses on location near peak of toss. OK: Any one of the items from good category is not observed. Poor: Two or more of the items from good category are not observed. Task 2—Two-Ball Toss and Catch One trial consists of five transfers in which the ball in the right hand is tossed to the left and vice versa. The criteria for judging quality are the same as for task 1 except that the good category has the following additional criteria: Second ball is tossed as first ball reaches peak. Task 3—Three-Ball Toss and Drop One trial consists of five attempts in which all three balls are tossed in the correct order. The criteria for judging quality are the same as for task 2 except that the good category has the following additional criteria that must be met: Third ball is tossed as second ball reaches peak. Balls are tossed in correct order. Task 4—Three-Ball Juggling One trial consists of juggling as long as possible until a ball is dropped. Count and record the number of catches. Quality will not be recorded. Condition 2—Juggling Only You will practice three-ball juggling throughout the entire session. One trial consists of juggling as long as possible until a ball is dropped. Count and record the number of catches. Quality will not be recorded. Data Sheet 1 (5 points) Participant: _________________________________________ For condition 1—part practice, each block will consist of practice on one task only (complete tasks in order). Record errors and quality for tasks 1 to 3. For task 4, record the number of catches and errors, but not quality. Condition 1: Part practice Task 1—One-Ball Toss and Catch 5 to 10 seconds between trials Block Trial Errors 1 1 Quality (circle 1) Good OK Poor 2 Good OK Poor 3 Good OK Poor 4 Good OK Poor 5 Good OK Poor Use slash marks to tally errors as you go. 1-minute break Task 2—Two-Ball Toss and Catch Block Trial Errors 2 6 Quality (circle 1) Good OK Poor 7 Good OK Poor 8 Good OK Poor 9 Good OK Poor 10 Good OK Poor 1-minute break Task 3—Three-Ball Toss and Drop Block Trial Errors 3 11 Quality (circle 1) Good OK Poor 12 Good OK Poor 13 Good OK Poor 14 Good OK Poor 15 Good OK Poor 1-minute break Task 4—Three-Ball Juggling Block Trial Count 4 16 17 18 19 20 5-minute break Retention Test Block Trial Count Ret 1 2 3 4 5 Avg: Errors Data Sheet 2 (5 points) Participant:_________________________________________ For condition 2—juggling only, record the number of catches and errors. Condition 2: Juggling only Juggling practice only 5 to 10 seconds between trials Block Trial Count 1 1 2 3 4 5 1-minute break Juggling practice only Block Trial Count 2 6 7 8 9 10 5-minute break Retention Test Block Trial Count Ret 1 2 3 4 5 Avg: Discussion (15 points) Based on the information on part practice presented in the lecture and on the retention results for you, explain why part practice might or might not be effective for learning to juggle. Discuss two other types of practice, other than part practice, that might be used to help someone learn to juggle.

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