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Your use of the machine generated PDF is subject to all use restrictions contained in The Cengage Learning Subscription and License Agreement and/or the Gale Health and Wellness Terms and Conditions and by using the machine generated PDF functionality you agree to forgo any and all claims against Cengage Learning or its licensors for your use of the machine generated PDF functionality and any output derived therefrom. Three apple a day: fill up on this crunchy sweet treat to control your appetite. (Nutrition Journal) Author: Chris Sare Date: June 2003 From: Joe Weider’s Muscle & Fitness(Vol. 64, Issue 6) Publisher: Weider Publications LLC Document Type: Article Length: 656 words Full Text: If fan apple a day can keep the doctor away, three can send the pounds away, provided you follow an ingenious diet from a resourceful bodybuilder/dietitian. Lots of good diets include fresh fruit for snacks and desserts, but Tammi Flynn’s 3-Apple-aDay Plan has you eat the apples before each of your three main meals. It takes the edge off a ravenous appetite. Flynn, who finished third at the 2000 USAs, is a personal trainer, registered dietitian and group-training instructor at Gold’s Gym in Wenatchee, Washington. She didn’t start out to promote apples. She just wanted to help her clients get more produce in their diets. Fruits and vegetables weren’t a favorite with many clients, but they liked apples, so Flynn had them eat three a day. Lo and behold, she found that those who ate their apples before meals lost bodyfat faster. So Flynn incorporated apples into her Get Lean Diet, a relatively high-protein, moderate-carb, low-fat eating plan any bodybuilder would appreciate. Meal plans ranged from 1,200 to 3,000 calories a day The 2,000-calorie plan, for example, had 40% of calories from protein, 49% from carbohydrate and 11% from fat. Weight training and cardio were part of the program, too. Jessica Highee, a new mom with baby weight to lose, was one of the pioneers of the apple diet, She lost 30 pounds and kept it off. “Eating the apple before meals helped with feeling full,” she says. “I have a sweet tooth, and apples help satisfy it. They come in such a variety — Fujis are sweet, Granny Smiths are tart.” Higbee wasn’t the only one to lose. The results for Wenatchee participants in the 2001 Gold’s Gym Challenge: 346 people lost 6,000 pounds of fat in 12 weeks. That’s over 17 pounds per person! When the Washington State Apple Commission heard those results, it funded a public-information campaign based on the apple diet. That’s how Flynn and colleagues ended up at MUSCLE & FITNESS headquarters bearing apples. Pectin Power So, are these apples magic? In a way, yes, because they’re a good source of pectin, a soluble fiber that helps lower cholesterol and aids in appetite control. A medium apple has 4 grams of fiber. You might think you’re already getting plenty of fiber, but much of it may be the insoluble type, also know as roughage, that comes from bran, whole wheat and green vegetables. We also need the soluble fiber. This type of fiber dissolves in water and becomes gummy, explains The Encyclopedia of Foods (Academic Press, 2002). Sources of the soluble fiber pectin are apples, citrus fruits like oranges and grapefruit, and carrots. Sources of the other type of soluble fiber, gums, are oats (another bodybuilding staple), dried beans and other legumes, and barley According to the University of California, Berkeley, Wellness Letter (March 2002): “Fiber boosts satiety in a number of ways. And while insoluble fiber (abundant in whole wheat) increases fullness in the short term, soluble fiber (in oats, for instance) can produce a feeling of satiety many hours after a meal.” Apples are one of the easiest and tastiest ways to get both types of fiber (the insoluble fiber is mostly in the peel), “The apple is a convenience food,” says Blair McHaney, owner of the Wenatchee Gold’s. “We’re absolutely a fast-food nation, and the apple requires no preparation. You can eat on the go without slopping on yourself.” Eating apples isn’t a license to pig out, but it’s part of a pattern of healthy behavior that can help you control your eating and prevent obesity To learn more about Tammi Flynn’s 3-Apple-a-Day Plan, visit www.3appleplan.com. Visit Chris online at www.ChrisSare.com. Apple 1 medium-size with skin 81 calories 84% water 21 g carbohydrate trace protein and fat 4 g fiber (soluble and insoluble) 8 mg Vitamin C 159 mg potassium Flavonoids, especially in red apples RELATED ARTICLE: Cool & Crisp * Keep your apples cool — in the refrigerator at about 32 degrees F. Apples left on the countertop won’t stay crisp for long. * Choose apples with shiny skin. Dull-looking apple won’t be crisp and delicious. * Washington State Apple Commission. Sare, Chris Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2003 Weider Publications http://muscle-fitness.com Source Citation (MLA 8th Edition) Sare, Chris. “Three apple a day: fill up on this crunchy sweet treat to control your appetite. (Nutrition Journal).” Joe Weider’s Muscle & Fitness, vol. 64, no. 6, June 2003, p. 68. Gale Health and Wellness, https://link-galecom.ezproxy.cuyamaca.edu/apps/doc/A101259516/HWRC?u=sdccd_cuyamaca&sid=HWRC&xid=17d731dc. Accessed 23 Apr. 2020. Gale Document Number: GALE|A101259516 THE VERDIC T ON ‘APPLE A DAY ’ by Deborah Blum HOW ONE FRUIT MYSTIFIES OUR PURSUIT OF HEALTH M cFARLAND, Wisc.— I’ve got this enchanted garden theme playing in my head as I drive into apple orchard country. Apparently, I’ve spent too much time musing about apples and their mythic image—ruddy with seductive power in the Bible, golden with magical promises in the Greek myths, possessing a near-holy healing chemistry in the history of medicine. 24 SCIENCE SPIRIT NOVEMBER DECEMBER 2007 So despite the fact that rain spatters around me and the sky darkens to metallic gray, I’m envisioning my destination—a small organic farm, specializing in heirloom apples—as a Midwestern version of paradise. And, sure enough, even in the downpour, the Gardens of Goodness orchard strikes me as slightly Edenish. The trees gleam with water, drip with fruit, splash the dull sludge of the air with color: apples striped with pink, dressed in greenish “ APPLES DO HAVE A BLESSED MYTHOLOGY, AN AURA OF BEING ABLE TO PROTECT US FROM BOTH DISEASE AND DOCTORS. BUT THE REALITY OF THEM, AS WITH ALL FOODS CREDITED WITH HEALING POWERS, IS MORE COMPLICATED. ” the public that apples were good for something other than getting drunk. “The point of growing apples in the nineteenth century was mostly to make hard cider,” says Lindemann, who has filled his orchard with “heirloom” species cultivated in the glory days of the drinkable apple. Lindemann makes soft or non-alcoholic cider, but he still likes mixing old varieties to Photo by Barb Lindemann. gold, colored a near translucent yellow, an unexpected smoky red. The orchard is small enough, only 150 trees, growing in lines just staggered enough, in ground just grassy enough, that the whole effect is of a garden run wild. I’m admiring a tree, so lush with apples that its branches drag the ground, when the farmer, Jim Lindemann interrupts my idyll. He’s also looking at the clustered fruit, but without admiration. “We haven’t managed those trees well enough,” he says gloomily, peering out from under his hood. “We should have thinned the fruit more.” Lindemann casts a disparaging glance at a gem-like scatter of apples at our feet. “Should have gotten to that tree sooner.” It suddenly occurs to me that my shoes are sodden and that my notebook is becoming an alarmingly solid mass of wet paper. And that maybe I should get the hint here—that dream-like perfection is usually, well, a dream. Apples do have a blessed mythology, an aura of being able to protect us from both disease and doctors. But the reality of them, as with all foods credited with healing powers, is more complicated and, actually, far more interesting. At least so I’m thinking as I slosh my way out of the shimmering reds and greens of Jim Lindemann’s orchard. ••• “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” is not, as one might suspect, a message handed down by ancient healers. It’s a slogan direct from an early twentieth-century public relations campaign created by the apple-growing industry. In the uptight days of Prohibition, growers wished to remind Jim Lindemann WWW.SCIENCE-SPIRIT.ORG SCIENCE SPIRIT 25 find that perfect taste of spice and sweet. At the age of sixty-two, he also likes standing amidst trees with “delightfully different personalities.” He’s filled his wild garden of an orchard with the eclectic species of the past: Sops of Wine, Pearmain Adams, Black Oxford, Southmeadow, Pink Pearl, Fireside, Westfield Seek-No-Further, Montemorency. As nature writer Michael Pollan points out in his book, The Botany of Desire, these are just the kind of exotic species that John Chapman (aka Johnny Appleseed) carried west from the more established Eastern states. Chapman/Appleseed “would soon be welcome in every cabin in Ohio; he was bringing the gift of alcohol to the frontier.” By the time those anti-alcohol forces pushed “ sage with new ideas of health. Kellogg, head of a Michigan health spa, promoted a fruitand-grain style start to the day, which lead him to invent cereals (including Granola and Corn Flakes) to sustain that habit. At the same time, the federal government, pushed by pure food advocates became more interested in the idea of a healthy diet. In fact, after passage of the 1906 Food and Drug Act, government officials often seemed more aggressive about protecting natural foods than investigating medications. The Bureau of Chemistry (predecessor to the FDA) prosecuted everyone from flour manufacturers for using bleach to whiten their product to the Coca-Cola Company for putting caffeine in its soft drinks. JOHNNY APPLESEED WOULD SOON BE WELCOME IN EVERY CABIN IN OHIO; HE WAS BRINGING THE GIFT OF ALCOHOL TO THE FRONTIER. ” through the Prohibition Act, the apple was once again symbolic of temptation and the axe a symbol of righteousness. Rather than clear every orchard in the country, growers fought back. They launched a campaign to remind consumers that the fruit also had a wholesome image—Mom, Apple Pie, Good Eats, Good Health. The campaign featured their apple-aday message that a good diet was good as medicine. Another popular movement, an interest in “pure” and healthy foods that also arose with the twentieth century, buoyed the campaign. The newly formed Seventh-day Adventist church encouraged a meat-free, plant-rich diet as part of a spiritual lifestyle. Followers of the church, such as John Harvey Kellogg, cheerfully combined the religious mes- 26 SCIENCE SPIRIT NOVEMBER DECEMBER 2007 Still, it would be unfair to label the apple-a-day movement as purely political or merely part of a health-nut trend. Even then, the “medicinal” apple owned a special history. In medieval England there was a saying comparable to the grower’s slogan, although perhaps less catchy: “Ate an apfel avore gwain to bed makes the doctor beg his bread.” Roman doctors prescribed apples for digestion; sixteenth-century physicians recommended them as an antidote to lung disease and inflammation. And apple juice was one of the earliest remedies for depression. There are many reasons to love the idea of a medicinal fruit or a healing diet. There’s that appealing Garden of Eden image again, the beautiful and blessed power of untainted nature. There’s the comforting possibility that we have the ability to cure ourselves Photo by Robert Barker, Cornell University Photography. and avoid institutional medical care. And— despite the rather obvious point that apple consumption hasn’t made much of a difference in curing depression—there’s an accumulation of new research suggesting that the fruit does contain a rather remarkable chemistry. In fact, one could even argue that twenty-first-century science is adding a new reality into the early twentieth-century natural food campaigns, putting some solid facts behind the medieval recommendation that we tuck into an “apfel” before we tuck ourselves into bed. ••• “So how many apples do you eat a day?” I ask Rui Hai Liu, an associate professor of Rui Hai Liu haven’t reached similar conclusions—among them a Finnish study, which recently linked apple consumption to reduced risk of diabetes, and a British study reporting that increased apple intake appeared to reduce asthma symptoms. Most scientists, those at Cornell included, believe it’s the chemistry—or the phytochemistry—of plants that explains their disease fighting abilities. In particular, researchers look to compounds like phenols, flavenoids (famously found in red wine), and carotenoids (best known from carrots) and similar compounds that appear to help buffer healthy cells against environmental damage and, in some cases, even slow or halt the growth of malignant cells. “ OF COURSE, THERE IS NO STANDARD APPLE—ANY MORE THAN THERE’S ONE KIND OF ONION, POTATO, SQUASH OR GRAPE. APPLE IS A CATCHALL FOR HUNDREDS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES. ” food science at Cornell University. “More than one?” I’m wondering if his reply will have that apostle-of-apples tone that comes across in other interviews. I’d decided to call after I read a quote he’d given to Newsweek: “We’re changing the old saying: an apple a day keeps the doctor away. Now it might be: an apple a day keeps cancer at bay.” In the past five years, Cornell has done more research connecting apples and health than any other university in the country. Studies by Liu and his colleagues have found chemical compounds in apples that appear to protect against everything from memory loss to cancer. That’s not to say that others Apples contain a potent cocktail of these disease-fighting compounds, as do many other fruits and vegetables, including blueberries, cranberries, pomegranates, persimmons, onions, broccoli, garlic, olives, cocoa, and coffee beans. It’s a lengthy list and it’s no wonder that the most reasonable—and oft repeated—advice offered by experts is to eat a variety of plants, from nine to twelve servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Cornell food scientists concentrated on apples for a number of reasons. They work in upstate New York, one of the famed apple growing regions of the United States. And they WWW.SCIENCE-SPIRIT.ORG SCIENCE SPIRIT 27 “ YOU CAN ARGUE THAT THE APPLE SLOGANEERS WERE JUST WRONG—THAT A DAILY APPLE WON’T SAVE US FROM THE DOCTOR. OR THAT THEY WERE EXACTLY RIGHT. like the fact that we don’t just talk about eating apples, we actually do it. According to the U.S. Apple Association, the average American consumes almost seventeen pounds of apples a year. Cornell researcher, Chang Y. “Cy” Lee, chairman of the department of Food Science and Technology, has done some beautifully detailed studies of the compounds found in apples and the ways that they might interfere with disease. In one study, Lee focused on one particular antioxidant, called quercetin, abundant in apples, berries, and onions, which seemed to have unusually strong protective qualities. He set up a series of cell cultures, some pre-treated with quercetin, some without. He then injected all the cultures with hydrogen peroxide, a fizzing mix of hydrogen and oxygen sometimes used as a household antiseptic and known for its tendency to cause oxidative damage to cells. Lee’s tests ranged from nerve cells to colon cells. In all cases, quercetin reduced the peroxide damage; in fact, the greater exposure to the apple-based antioxidant, the better the cells survived. Because analysis shows that most of the health-protective chemicals like quercetin concentrate in the skin of the fruit, that’s where Liu decided to focus his tests. In 2005 he reported more than a dozen compounds in apple skin that either killed or inhibited growth of cancer cells in laboratory culture. More recently, he moved from cell cultures to laboratory animals. This spring, he reported on a six-month experiment with female rats. The animals were exposed to a mammary carcinogen and then fed either apple-dense extracts or a fruit-free formula. In rats fed the equivalent of an apple a day, breast cancer was seventeen percent less than in the comparison group. Again, Liu found a dose dependent response. The cancer rate 28 SCIENCE SPIRIT NOVEMBER DECEMBER 2007 ” fell by forty-four percent in animals fed the equivalent of six apples a day. And there was another effect. The cancer that did occur appeared less aggressive in the apple-dose animals: “I would call the slow growth very encouraging news,” Liu says. This was definitely intriguing. I had to wonder if I was dismissing the old apple mythology too quickly. Perhaps I’d been too cynical; perhaps, in fact, those twentieth-century apple sloganeers were too conservative. Perhaps I should have pocketed a few windfalls from the Garden of Goodness orchard. Perhaps an apple a day might not be enough—or so I’m thinking when I ask Liu about his apple consumption. Given my sudden rush of interest, he sounds disappointingly cautious, nothing like an apostle of apples. “Well, an apple a day really makes sense,” Liu responds. He often tries to bump that up to two a day. But six a day, as in his recent study? He thinks that would be a mistake; he’s a far stronger believer in the recommended mixed fruit diet. “If you’re looking for optimal protection, you don’t want to eat only apples.” ••• Jim Lindemann stands patiently in the soggy grass, surrounded by shaggy trees, streaming with summer rain and talking about apple growing techniques. I admire his patience and apparent good will. I also wonder if he admires my journalistic pluck as well or just thinks of me as too dumb to ask my questions inside. The Lindemanns—Jim and his wife, Barb—planted their organic orchard in an overgrown horse pasture. They’d discovered, from studying state records, that planting on land used for long-time orchards would be a mistake. Such ground was heavy with arsenic, left by earlier-generation pesticides. “We really backed into organic,” Lindemann says slowly, thinking his way through it. “We’d always kept our home garden organic. And after a while, it just grew on us. We didn’t like eating pesticides ourselves. It didn’t seem to us they worked all that well with apples. So we just decided we’d do without them in the orchard.” I’ve discovered that when I mention the health benefits of apples to friends, they tend to respond with frowning queries about pesticide use. That’s what happens when you live in a university town like Madison, Wisconsin. But it’s also a result of campaigns by groups like the Environmental Working Group (EWG), which ranks produce according to pesticide exposure. Peaches top the list. But apples come second. Even after washing, according to EWG, residues of up to twelve different pesticides may still coat an apple. Although many people find that worrisome—EWG recommends eating mostly organic apples—Liu believes it to be an overreaction. “Those are very slight residues and if you look at the government guidelines, very low risk.” What’s more interesting to him is that some preliminary studies suggest that organic produce contains a higher level of phenols, one of the potent anti-oxidant groups. He’d like to know more about that. There’s a lot more he’d like to know. More than pesticides, Liu sees the real problem as this: It’s not just that we don’t understand the complicated mechanics of a healthy diet. We don’t really even understand the mechanics of one well-studied fruit like the apple. Of course, there is no standard apple—any more than there’s one kind of onion, potato, squash, or grape. “Apple” is a catchall for hundreds of different species. In one study, Liu found that Red Delicious apple extracts inhibited liver cancer cell proliferation by fifty-seven percent, Fuji extracts by thirtynine percent, and Northern Spy apples seemed to have no effect at all. But apples on the same tree also vary—fruit in the outer canopy, exposed to sunlight, seems to produce a far healthier mix of chemicals than that shaded in the under canopy. “The complexities of health and nutrition are not yet fully understood,” Cy Lee emphasizes. Lee lists just a few of the knowledge gaps: We don’t know enough about bioavailability. How much of the good compounds do people actually get when they eat an apple? (Some studies suggest, for instance, that we absorb more quercetin from onions.) We don’t know enough about mechanism. How do phytochemicals interact with, say, malignant cells? There are studies that show that quercetin inhibits cancer growth at high levels but may actually accelerate it at very small doses. It’s not an understatement to say that everyone would like to know why. Many studies show a profoundly positive effect of a well-loaded phytochemical diet. But some don’t. A survey of breast cancer survivors, published this summer, indicated that those on a low-fat, high fruit and vegetable diet did no better than those making less deliberately healthy choices. “We do know that diet alone is not the cure for all diseases (or aging),” Lee says. He’s been advocating for a long-term, human clinical study that would focus on the so-called healthy foods, and test everything from bioavailability to their phytochemical effect on gene expression. “Until that time, scientists, as well as industry, related to human health must be cautious on claiming any specific foods and compounds on health benefit,” Lee says. And there’s one other point, one that highlights the problem in the daily apple approach. As Jenna Wunder, public health researcher at the University of Michigan and a co-developer of the university’s Healing Foods Pyramid, emphasizes: “You can’t add an apple a day to a fibreless diet and expect to see a change in health.” The healing foods pyramid is a whole diet approach—low-fat, moderate protein, complex grains, lots of fruits and vegetables, colorful and spicy, and demanding some serious lifestyle work. Which brings me back to my original apple-as-fantasy problem. You can argue that the apple sloganeers were just wrong—that a daily apple won’t save us from the doctor. Or that they were exactly right—that apples with their remarkable chemistry should, indeed, figure in our daily, healthy diet. The answer undoubtedly encompasses both, in the way that I think that I’m as right about the tangled beauty of the Lindemann’s orchard as he is about its imperfect management. But I’ll let him have the last word, right out of a discussion of organic apples and our expectations. “We’ve used all those pesticides because people want apples to look perfect. But, apples aren’t supposed to be perfect.” Healing Foods Pyramid by Monica Myklebust, MD and Jenna Wunder, MPH, RD. © Regents of the University of Michigan and its division of Integrative Medicine. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be reproduced without permission. WWW.SCIENCE-SPIRIT.ORG SCIENCE SPIRIT 29 Copyright of Science & Spirit is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.