HEA 468 The Disparities Evident Globally in The United States Question

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Assignment #1: Health Disparities Research Paper Proposal & Annotated Bibliography HEA 468- Multicultural Health – Dr. Kuratani (version date: 01/2021) This assignment consists of two sections. Both sections must be completed for full credit. Submitting only part of the assignment will result in a zero score. Please be sure to read the instructions thoroughly and carefully. Assignment #1 – Section A: Research Paper Proposal The goal of the proposal is to put your idea down into words in a clear, precise way. Section A of the assignment will be 2-3 pages, which must include: • • • • Brief background information about why the topic you have selected is important to public health (½ page max). Describe the health disparity o Synthesis of Braverman’s definition of a health disparity; o Describe the elements that are included in the definition of what determines a health disparity o Include as an example of the health disparity you have chosen o Include real data in the form of a chart from a research study or government website (e.g. NIH, NCI, CDC, healthypeople.gov) A one-sentence, clear and concise thesis statement or research question. Check for correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Closely edit your work. The Thesis Statement: You may use a thesis statement, hypothesis, or a research question. The point is that you must have a single sentence that tells your reader what the topic of your paper is. For this assignment your thesis statement must have: – A specific health condition A specific subpopulation that is more affected than others A possible cause of the health inequality Examples of thesis statements/research questions for this assignment: • • • • “Food deserts contribute to higher rates of obesity among urban African American groups.” “Stigma about HIV contributes to lower rates of HIV testing among African Americans MSM.” “Does historical trauma of colonization contribute to higher rates of obesity among Native Hawaiians?” “Would an increase in funding for Indian Health Services improve mental health services to American Indian/Alaskan Native communities with substance abuse disorders?” 1 Assign #1 – SECTION B: Annotated Bibliography The goal of the annotated bibliography is to help you gather and organize the supporting evidence that you will use to argue your thesis statement/hypothesis/research question. For Section B of this assignment, you need to submit an annotated bibliography of five – seven sources of evidence from the scientific literature that provides evidence about your health disparity of choice. In addition to each articles reference, you need to provide a synthesized summary of the article and an analysis of the source to describe why the evidence supports your thesis/hypotheses or answers your research question. Step 1: Conduct a literature search about a health outcome that may be a health disparity. You will search for scholarly articles that are high quality sources from peer-reviewed academic journals*****.(See below for more information about peer-reviewed journals. Step 2: Choose five articles to include in your annotated bibliography. Out of the 5 references, you must have at least three pieces of evidence (or three main points) that are distinctly different from one another that you can use to support your argument. Step 3: Include the reference for each article. (Use only one format; either APA). Step 4: Create a summary (1 paragraph) section. Read and synthesize each article to include a 1 paragraph summary in your own words about relevant findings. Step 5: Create an analysis section. Write a concise analysis of each article; describe how the evidence can be used to either: a) supply background information about the health outcome causing the health disparity (this should be no more than 1-2 articles, b) supportive information towards your thesis statement/research question d) support/provide ideas for how to begin to resolve the health disparity or decrease the incidence of the health outcome topic Peer-reviewed academic journals***** For this assignment, I am giving you strict rules about what you may/may not cite as primary sources of evidence to encourage you to think critically about the information you find, especially on the internet. Government-operated websites (e.g. NIH, NCI, NIDA, NIMH, NIMHD, CDC, etc) can only be used to retrieve data on health disparities to support primary sources of evidence. These websites CANNOT be used as primary source of evidence. How to identify peer-reviewed journal: https://library.mcmaster.ca/faq/how-can-i-tell-if-a-journal-peer-reviewed https://pioneersread.wordpress.com/2011/08/31/5-ways-to-tell-if-the-article-is-scholarly-aka-peer-reviewedaka-academic/ 2 Required formatting for annotated bibliography: SAMPLE Annotated bibliography: Article 1: Becker, G., Gates, R. J., & Newsom, E. (2004). Self-care among chronically ill African Americans: culture, health disparities, and health insurance status. American Journal of Public Health, 94(12), 2066-2073. URL: https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.94.12.2066 Summary: This article presents a qualitative study of 167 African Americans with chronic illness. The authors find that self-care practices have a cultural basis for African Americans. Important parts of self-care in this group included spirituality/spiritual philosophies; integration of mind, body and spirit; social support; and nonmedical treatments (home remedies). They also find that those participants with health insurance have more extensive programs of self-care. Analysis: The article supports the thesis statement because it shows how African Americans with chronic disease have more extensive self-care practices when they have health insurance. Self-care is important to manage diabetes and prevent amputation. Therefore having health insurance should help patience avoid amputations related to diabetes. Assignment #1 Rubric FIRST LAYER OF GRADING: Definition of health disparity Correctly explained why the example illustrated the concept of a disparity Possible: __/2 __/2 The topic is a specific health outcome that affects one group more than another for reasons that are not biologically determined The population is clearly defined Background information states why the topic is important to public health The thesis statement/research question is 1 sentence – clear and concise Thesis statement includes a possible cause of or solution to the disparity Data included as a chart to show the systemic, plausibly avoidable health disparity of the socially disadvantaged group in question Proposal is written with correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation __/2 Sources are cited correctly in-text and in annotated bibliography list The three pieces of evidence are different from one another __/2 __/1 Formatting is correct __/1 Total Are all the references scholarly articles? If not, then -5 points Total SECOND LAYER OF GRADING: see chart on the following page 3 __/1 __/2 __/2 __/1 __/2 __/2 __/20 Research Question/ Thesis Statement Organization Development Research DISTINGUISHED = A Thesis and purpose are clear to the reader; closely match the writing task. PROFICIENT = B Thesis and purpose are fairly clear and match the writing task. Writing shows high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points. Unity clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. Writing is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. Overall unity of ideas are present. Main points well developed with high quality and quantity support. Reveals high degree of critical thinking. Main points well developed with quality supporting details and quantity. Critical thinking is weaved into points. Sources are well integrated and support the paper’s claims. There may be occasional Sources are exceptionally wellintegrated and they support claims argued in 4 COMPETENT = C Thesis and purpose are somewhat vague OR only loosely related to the writing task. Writing is coherent and logically organized. Some points remain misplaced and stray from the topic. Transitions evident but not used throughout essay. Main points are present with limited detail and development. Some critical thinking is present. UNSATISFACTORY = D Reader cannot determine thesis & purpose OR thesis has no relation to the writing task. Sources support some claims made in the paper, but might not be integrated well within the The paper does not use adequate research or if it does, the sources are not integrated well. They are Writing lacks logical organization. It shows some coherence but ideas lack unity. Serious errors. Main points lack detailed development. Ideas are vague with little evidence of critical thinking. Level of Content Grammar & Mechanics the paper very effectively. Quotations and Works Cited conform to APA style sheet. Ideas are synthesized and not summarized, indepth analysis and evidences original thought and support for the topic. Essay is free of distracting spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors; absent of fragments, comma splices, and run-ons. Meets all formal and assignment requirements and evidences attention to detail; all margins, spacing and indentations are correct; essay is neat and correctly assembled with professional look. SECOND LAYER OF GRADING: Format errors, but the sources paper’s argument. There and Works Cited conform may be a few errors in to APA style sheet. APA style. not cited correctly according to APA style. Content indicates original thinking and develops ideas with sufficient and firm evidence. Shows some thinking and reasoning but most ideas are underdeveloped and unoriginal. Spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors create distraction, making reading difficult; fragments, comma splices, run-ons evident. Errors are frequent. Fails to follow format and assignment requirements; incorrect margins, spacing and indentation; neatness of essay needs attention. Essay has few spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors allowing reader to follow ideas clearly. Very few fragments or runons. Meets format and assignment requirements; margins, spacing, and indentations are correct; essay is neat and correctly assembled. 5 Content indicates thinking and reasoning applied with original thought on a few ideas. Most spelling, punctuation, and grammar correct allowing reader to progress though essay. Some errors remain. Meets format and assignment requirements; generally correct margins, spacing, and indentations; essay is neat but may have some assembly errors. 10 common remarks given on Assn 1 that make you lose points 1. You are missing many components, please read the instructions and the grading rubric, you cannot use a paper from another class and submit for this, even if it is about a health disparity – you may use the content but you must make sure you pay attention to the necessary components this assignment requires 2. DO NOT INCLUDE TITLE OF ARTICLE in the narrative, this is MLA – in this class, we use APA – see syllabus for informational resources 3. Must cite all sources and assertions – even if you only restate an idea in your own words, the idea or concept must be cited; you must give that person credit 4. Missing Braveman’s definition of health disparities 5. You forgot to include why this is important to public health (see instructions and grading rubric) 6. Missing data or Do not include raw data, must convert data into a simple bar graph 7. Avoid using “I” “me” “my” in research papers, all content should be coming from your literature review articles 8. need to relate your discussion of health disparities to the data you provided to show a health disparity exists 9. you touch on the components of Braveman’s definition but you don’t connect it or give context to your data, expand your discussion of Braveman’s definition of health disparities by linking to your data, using the data to illustrate the definition. Thus, showing you understand the concepts of a health disparity Most common feedback of ALL TIME: 10. “The cause of your thesis does not fit the theoretical paradigm of focus” remember, we already acknowledge disadvantage using Braveman’s definition of health disparities – low ses (or poverty) and low education are therefore redundant as “cause” for your thesis statement….what could be a larger social determinant, such as social, political, historical, or environmental causes that are barriers to better health or promoting poor health or disease? REMEMBER in this class the theoretical paradigm includes Braveman’s definition of health disparities and universalist views on fixing them (e.g. fix the problem, fix the source; NOT the person) as well as identifying social determinants…even though SES is a social determinant, we are trying to look at health disparities in a novel way, until now, public health has focused on the individual. What is the person doing to contribute to their state of health? This is completely valid. However, one aspect that is completely missing from much of public health research, but is starting to gain traction is paying attention to social context. Studies that ONLY focus on the individual and proximal issues totally disregard social context and meaning of health have no influence on health beliefs and health behavior. Further, that the source of the inequities and problems of health disparities are rooted in the sources that people draw from and not the people. the paradigm you need to use to write this paper should not blame the person, rather to look to the source and fix the source. Such as, what about the community, society, and politics have contributed to the high rates of disease? To help you find a possible cause that fits the theoretical paradigm, ask yourself: what are the social barriers or determinants that are contributing to poor health?

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