(Mt) – Charismatic Leadership Trait Report

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CHAPTER 2 THE LEADERSHIP EQUATION Graw-Hill Education LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Describe the variables that determine leadership effectiveness • Understand trait and behavior theories of leadership Graw-Hill Education THE LEADERSHIP EQUATION Early studies of leadership were based on the following theories: • Trait theory: Focuses on qualities of the leader • Behavior theory: Focuses on leadership actions Graw-Hill Education LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORY, 1 Assumes that distinctive physical and psychological characteristics account for leadership effectiveness Important traits • Basic intelligence • Clear and strong values • High level of personal energy Graw-Hill Education LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORY, 2 Ghiselli’s traits for effective leadership • Need for achievement • Intelligence • Decisiveness • Self-confidence • Initiative • Supervisory ability Graw-Hill Education TRAIT THEORY APPLIED Paul Von Hindenburg • Second president of post-World War I Germany • Used the trait theory for selecting and developing leaders • Identified the primary qualities that determine leadership ability • Intelligence: Bright versus dull • Vitality: Energetic versus lazy Graw-Hill Education FIGURE 2.1: DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP Graw-Hill Education LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR THEORY In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism in psychology moved researchers in the direction of the study of leadership behavior versus leadership traits Kurt Lewin trained assistants in behaviors indicative of three leadership styles • Autocratic: Characterized by tight control of group activities and decisions made by the leader • Democratic: Emphasized group participation and majority rule • Laissez-faire: Involved low levels of any kind of activity by the leader Graw-Hill Education OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY STUDIES ON LEADERSHIP Ralph Stogdill and others developed the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire or L B D Q • Respondents to the questionnaire described leaders’ behaviors in two dimensions • Initiating structure: Extent to which leaders take action to define the relationship between themselves and their staff • Consideration: Extent to which leaders take action to develop trust, respect, support, and friendship with subordinates UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES ON LEADERSHIP Graw-Hill Education Studies conducted under the direction of Rensis Likert Impact of leaders’ behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance were studied Dimensions of leadership behavior that were identified • Job-centered: Same as initiating structure • Employee-centered: Same as showing consideration Graw-Hill Education ROBERT BLAKE AND JANE MOUTON’S MANAGERIAL GRID, 1 • Reflects the Ohio and Michigan dimensions of initiating structure and showing consideration • Identifies the ideal leader as having a high concern for both production and people ROBERT BLAKE AND JANE MOUTON’S MANAGERIAL GRID, 2 Major styles in managers Impoverished: Low concern for production and people Sweatshop: High concern for production but low concern for people Country club: High concern for people and low concern for task accomplishment Status quo: Medium concern for both production and people Fully functioning: High concern for both production and people Graw-Hill Education Graw-Hill Education THE MANAGERIAL GRID ROBERT BLAKE AND JANE MOUTON’S MANAGERIAL GRID, 3 Additional styles Paternalistic High concern for production combined with use of rewards in exchange for compliance and loyalty Opportunistic Graw-Hill Education Promotion of manager’s own advancement Graw-Hill Education BEHAVIOR THEORY APPLIED Margot Morrell documented Ernest Shackleton’s Endurance expedition and identified behaviors of successful leaders: Leading by example Communicating a vision Keeping up morale Maintaining a positive attitude Graw-Hill Education LEADERSHIP CONTINGENCY THEORY, 1 Holds that the most appropriate leadership qualities and actions vary from situation to situation States that leadership effectiveness depends on: • Leader • Follower • Situational factors Graw-Hill Education LEADERSHIP CONTINGENCY THEORY, 2 Leaders in different situations need different interests, values, and skills • Leaders in a bank differ from the ones on a farm • Experienced versus new followers have different needs • Situational factors include the job being performed, the culture of the workplace, and the urgency of the task Graw-Hill Education LEADERSHIP CONTINGENCY THEORY, 3 Leadership results when the ideas and deeds of the leader match the needs and expectations of the follower(s) in a particular situation • Examples include: • General George Patton, • Nelson Mandela, and • Adolf Hitler Graw-Hill Education TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, 1 Charisma: Extraordinary ability to inspire others and bring forth loyalty Max Weber’s definition of Charisma • Certain quality that causes one to be set apart from ordinary people and to be treated as endowed with exceptional powers or qualities Graw-Hill Education TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, 2 Charisma is a gift or power of leadership Charismatic leaders exhibit a combination of personal characteristics and types of behavior • Dominant • Ambitious • Self-confident • Strong sense of purpose TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, 3 Charismatic leaders demonstrate specific types of behaviors • Role models for the beliefs and values they want their followers to adopt • Demonstrate ability that elicits the respect of followers • Have ideological goals with moral overtones • Communicate high expectations and show confidence in their ability to meet those expectations • Ignite the motives of followers to take action Graw-Hill Education Graw-Hill Education TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, 4 Football coach Vince Lombardi generated respect and following of others through charisma by: • Caring • Working hard • Knowing the right answers • Believing • Keeping the bar high • Knowing people Graw-Hill Education TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, 5 Use of optimism, charm, intelligence, and other personal qualities to raise aspirations and transform individuals and organizations into new levels of high performance First discussed by J. V. Downton James MacGregor Burns distinguished two kinds of leadership • Transformational leadership • Transactional leadership TRANSFORMATIONAL VERSUS TRANSACTIONAL, 1 Transformational leaders • Focus on the potential relationship between the leader and the followers • Engage the full person of the follower • Tap the motives of the followers Transactional leaders • Focus on exchanges between leaders and followers • Emphasize exchanging one thing for another Graw-Hill Education Graw-Hill Education TRANSFORMATIONAL VERSUS TRANSACTIONAL, 2 Research shows that transformational leadership has a positive effect on performance • Transformational leadership can occur at all levels of an organization • Transformational leaders can emerge in both formal and informal roles



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