(Mt) – Drafting a Project Charter Project Management Essay

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Team Charter This group assignment is a team charter. The team charter establishes standards for individual behaviour and group norms, which are important factors to succeed in teambased endeavours, including the management of projects. The team charter is not for a particular project. It is concerned with all team efforts throughout this class. Learning connection with the course outcomes • • Learn how to collaborate to design an innovative and impactful social venture to address social problems Identifying the resources, skills and knowledge required to be an effective project team leader For this assignment, you will create a team charter. The team charter establishes standards for individual behaviour and group norms, which are important factors to succeed in a team-based management environment. You may prepare your team charter in any format – narrative, bullet point, etc. Some of the areas you will want to address include the following. 1. Purpose of the team 2. Team background 3. Team composition 4. Contact information 5. Communication tools and techniques 6. Membership roles and responsibilities 7. Team roles rotation schedule 8. Ground rules 9. Decision making process 10. Conflict management approach 11. Team performance assessment 12. Sign-off page Submit ONE copy of your team charter to your instructor through the appropriate link. Keep a copy for yourself and send a copy to the entire group. Examples of responsibilities associated with group roles may be as follows: Manager/Leader is responsible for: • Clarifying assumptions and uncertainties. • Acting as a liaison to the instructor when required. • Making sure that individuals are advised of the team’s action plans and delegating requisite tasks as necessary. • Setting deadlines for individual submission, group editing, and final submission to instructor. Facilitator is responsible for: • Checking in with any group members who have not contributed to the discussion as assigned. • Logging with the instructor nonparticipating or nonresponsive group members. Recorder is responsible for: • Compiling individual submissions to create a cohesive document that is grammatically and technically correct. This must be done with sufficient lead time to provide an opportunity for group editing and comment. Support is responsible for: • Demonstrating significant contribution to team requirements of researching, writing, responding, editing, etc., as agreed upon by the team. . ct io n du ep ro R or le Sa n, tio bu tri is Fo rD ot N INCLUDES: THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT ANSI/PMI 99-001-2017 A Guide to the PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK ® GUIDE ) Sixth Edition Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Project Management Institute, publisher. Title: A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide) / Project Management Institute. Other titles: PMBOK guide Description: Sixth edition. | Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute, 2017. | Series: PMBOK guide | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017032505 (print) | LCCN 2017035597 (ebook) | ISBN 9781628253900 (ePUP) | ISBN 9781628253917 (kindle) | ISBN 9781628253924 ( Web PDF) | ISBN 9781628251845 (paperback) Subjects: LCSH: Project management. | BISAC: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Project Management. Classification: LCC HD69.P75 (ebook) | LCC HD69.P75 G845 2017 (print) | DDC 658.4/04–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017032505 ISBN: 978-1-62825-184-5 Published by: Project Management Institute, Inc. 14 Campus Boulevard Newtown Square, Pennsylvania 19073-3299 USA Phone: +1 610-356-4600 Fax: +1 610-356-4647 Email: [email protected] Website: www.PMI.org ©2017 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 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Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Information and other standards on the topic covered by this publication may be available from other sources, which the user may wish to consult for additional views or information not covered by this publication. PMI has no power, nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. PMI does not certify, test, or inspect products, designs, or installations for safety or health purposes. Any certification or other statement of compliance with any health or safety-related information in this document shall not be attributable to PMI and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. T ABLE OF CO NTENTS PART 1. A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® Guide) 1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.1 Overview and Purpose of this Guide …………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.1.1 The Standard for Project Management ……………………………………………………… 2 1.1.2 Common Vocabulary ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3 1.1.3 Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct ………………………………………………….. 3 1.2 Foundational Elements ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 1.2.1 Projects ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 1.2.2 The Importance of Project Management ………………………………………………….. 10 1.2.3 Relationship of Project, Program, Portfolio, and Operations Management………………………………………………………………….. 11 1.2.4 Components of the Guide……………………………………………………………………….. 17 1.2.5 Tailoring ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 1.2.6 Project Management Business Documents ……………………………………………… 29 2. THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH PROJECTS OPERATE………………………………………………………. 37 2.1 Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 2.2 Enterprise Environmental Factors………………………………………………………………………. 38 2.2.1 EEFs Internal to the Organization ……………………………………………………………. 38 2.2.2 EEFs External to the Organization …………………………………………………………… 39 I 2.3 Organizational Process Assets ………………………………………………………………………….. 39 2.3.1 Processes, Policies, and Procedures ……………………………………………………….. 40 2.3.2 Organizational Knowledge Repositories ………………………………………………….. 41 2.4 Organizational Systems ……………………………………………………………………………………. 42 2.4.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 2.4.2 Organizational Governance Frameworks …………………………………………………. 43 2.4.3 Management Elements ………………………………………………………………………….. 44 2.4.4 Organizational Structure Types ………………………………………………………………. 45 3. THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER………………………………………………………………………… 51 3.1 Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51 3.2 Definition of a Project Manager …………………………………………………………………………. 52 3.3 The Project Manager’s Sphere of Influence ………………………………………………………… 52 3.3.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52 3.3.2 The Project……………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 3.3.3 The Organization …………………………………………………………………………………… 54 3.3.4 The Industry …………………………………………………………………………………………. 55 3.3.5 Professional Discipline ………………………………………………………………………….. 56 3.3.6 Across Disciplines …………………………………………………………………………………. 56 3.4 Project Manager Competences ………………………………………………………………………….. 56 3.4.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56 3.4.2 Technical Project Management Skills ……………………………………………………… 58 3.4.3 Strategic and Business Management Skills …………………………………………….. 58 3.4.4 Leadership Skills …………………………………………………………………………………… 60 3.4.5 Comparison of Leadership and Management …………………………………………… 64 3.5 Performing Integration ……………………………………………………………………………………… 66 3.5.1 Performing Integration at the Process Level…………………………………………….. 67 3.5.2 Integration at the Cognitive Level……………………………………………………………. 67 3.5.3 Integration at the Context Level ……………………………………………………………… 67 3.5.4 Integration and Complexity…………………………………………………………………….. 68 II Table of Contents 4. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………….. 69 4.1 Develop Project Charter ……………………………………………………………………………………. 75 4.1.1 Develop Project Charter: Inputs ………………………………………………………………. 77 4.1.2 Develop Project Charter: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………… 79 4.1.3 Develop Project Charter: Outputs ……………………………………………………………. 81 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan …………………………………………………………………….. 82 4.2.1 Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs ………………………………………………. 83 4.2.2 Develop Project Management Plan: Tools and Techniques ………………………… 85 4.2.3 Develop Project Management Plan: Outputs…………………………………………….. 86 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work ……………………………………………………………………….. 90 4.3.1 Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs …………………………………………………. 92 4.3.2 Direct and Manage Project Work: Tools and Techniques …………………………… 94 4.3.3 Direct and Manage Project Work: Outputs ……………………………………………….. 95 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge ………………………………………………………………………………. 98 4.4.1 Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs ……………………………………………………….. 100 4.4.2 Manage Project Knowledge: Tools and Techniques …………………………………. 102 4.4.3 Manage Project Knowledge: Outputs …………………………………………………….. 104 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work ……………………………………………………………………. 105 4.5.1 Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs ………………………………………………. 107 4.5.2 Monitor and Control Project Work: Tools and Techniques ………………………… 110 4.5.3 Monitor and Control Project Work: Outputs ……………………………………………. 112 4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control ………………………………………………………………….. 113 4.6.1 Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs ……………………………………………. 116 4.6.2 Perform Integrated Change Control: Tools and Techniques ……………………… 118 4.6.3 Perform Integrated Change Control: Outputs ………………………………………….. 120 4.7 Close Project or Phase ……………………………………………………………………………………. 121 4.7.1 Close Project or Phase: Inputs ………………………………………………………………. 124 4.7.2 Close Project or Phase: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………… 126 4.7.3 Close Project or Phase: Outputs ……………………………………………………………. 127 III 5. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………….. 129 5.1 Plan Scope Management…………………………………………………………………………………. 134 5.1.1 Plan Scope Management: Inputs …………………………………………………………… 135 5.1.2 Plan Scope Management: Tools and Techniques …………………………………….. 136 5.1.3 Plan Scope Management: Outputs ………………………………………………………… 137 5.2 Collect Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………… 138 5.2.1 Collect Requirements: Inputs ……………………………………………………………….. 140 5.2.2 Collect Requirements: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………. 142 5.2.3 Collect Requirements: Outputs ……………………………………………………………… 147 5.3 Define Scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150 5.3.1 Define Scope: Inputs ……………………………………………………………………………. 152 5.3.2 Define Scope: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………………………… 153 5.3.3 Define Scope: Outputs………………………………………………………………………….. 154 5.4 Create WBS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156 5.4.1 Create WBS: Inputs ……………………………………………………………………………… 157 5.4.2 Create WBS: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………………………….. 158 5.4.3 Create WBS: Outputs ……………………………………………………………………………. 161 5.5 Validate Scope ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163 5.5.1 Validate Scope: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………. 165 5.5.2 Validate Scope: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………… 166 5.5.3 Validate Scope: Outputs ……………………………………………………………………….. 166 5.6 Control Scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167 5.6.1 Control Scope: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………… 169 5.6.2 Control Scope: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………….. 170 5.6.3 Control Scope: Outputs ………………………………………………………………………… 170 6. PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………….. 173 6.1 Plan Schedule Management ……………………………………………………………………………. 179 6.1.1 Plan Schedule Management: Inputs ………………………………………………………. 180 6.1.2 Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques ………………………………… 181 6.1.3 Plan Schedule Management: Outputs ……………………………………………………. 181 6.2 Define Activities……………………………………………………………………………………………… 183 6.2.1 Define Activities: Inputs ……………………………………………………………………….. 184 IV Table of Contents 6.2.2 Define Activities: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………. 184 6.2.3 Define Activities: Outputs …………………………………………………………………….. 185 6.3 Sequence Activities ………………………………………………………………………………………… 187 6.3.1 Sequence Activities: Inputs ………………………………………………………………….. 188 6.3.2 Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………………. 189 6.3.3 Sequence Activities: Outputs ………………………………………………………………… 194 6.4 Estimate Activity Durations……………………………………………………………………………… 195 6.4.1 Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs ……………………………………………………….. 198 6.4.2 Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques …………………………………. 200 6.4.3 Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs …………………………………………………….. 203 6.5 Develop Schedule …………………………………………………………………………………………… 205 6.5.1 Develop Schedule: Inputs …………………………………………………………………….. 207 6.5.2 Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………………. 209 6.5.3 Develop Schedule: Outputs …………………………………………………………………… 217 6.6 Control Schedule ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 222 6.6.1 Control Schedule: Inputs………………………………………………………………………. 224 6.6.2 Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………………… 226 6.6.3 Control Schedule: Outputs ……………………………………………………………………. 228 7. PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………. 231 7.1 Plan Cost Management …………………………………………………………………………………… 235 7.1.1 Plan Cost Management: Inputs……………………………………………………………… 236 7.1.2 Plan Cost Management: Tools and Techniques……………………………………….. 237 7.1.3 Plan Cost Management: Outputs …………………………………………………………… 238 7.2 Estimate Costs ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240 7.2.1 Estimate Costs: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………. 241 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………… 243 7.2.3 Estimate Costs: Outputs ……………………………………………………………………….. 246 7.3 Determine Budget …………………………………………………………………………………………… 248 7.3.1 Determine Budget: Inputs …………………………………………………………………….. 250 7.3.2 Determine Budget: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………………. 252 7.3.3 Determine Budget: Outputs…………………………………………………………………… 254 V 7.4 Control Costs …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 257 7.4.1 Control Costs: Inputs ……………………………………………………………………………. 259 7.4.2 Control Costs: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………………………… 260 7.4.3 Control Costs: Outputs …………………………………………………………………………. 268 8. PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………….. 271 8.1 Plan Quality Management ……………………………………………………………………………….. 277 8.1.1 Plan Quality Management: Inputs …………………………………………………………. 279 8.1.2 Plan Quality Management: Tools and Techniques …………………………………… 281 8.1.3 Plan Quality Management: Outputs ……………………………………………………….. 286 8.2 Manage Quality ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 288 8.2.1 Manage Quality: Inputs ………………………………………………………………………… 290 8.2.2 Manage Quality: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………………….. 292 8.2.3 Manage Quality: Outputs………………………………………………………………………. 296 8.3 Control Quality ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 298 8.3.1 Control Quality: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………. 300 8.3.2 Control Quality: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………… 302 8.3.3 Control Quality: Outputs ……………………………………………………………………….. 305 9. PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………. 307 9.1 Plan Resource Management ……………………………………………………………………………. 312 9.1.1 Plan Resource Management: Inputs………………………………………………………. 314 9.1.2 Plan Resource Management: Tools and Techniques………………………………… 315 9.1.3 Plan Resource Management: Outputs ……………………………………………………. 318 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources ……………………………………………………………………………. 320 9.2.1 Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs ………………………………………………………. 322 9.2.2 Estimate Activity Resources: Tools and Techniques ………………………………… 324 9.2.3 Estimate Activity Resources: Outputs ……………………………………………………. 325 9.3 Acquire Resources …………………………………………………………………………………………. 328 9.3.1 Acquire Resources: Inputs ……………………………………………………………………. 330 9.3.2 Acquire Resources: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………………… 332 9.3.3 Acquire Resources: Outputs …………………………………………………………………. 333 VI Table of Contents 9.4 Develop Team…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 336 9.4.1 Develop Team: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………… 339 9.4.2 Develop Team: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………….. 340 9.4.3 Develop Team: Outputs ………………………………………………………………………… 343 9.5 Manage Team…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 345 9.5.1 Manage Team: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………… 347 9.5.2 Manage Team: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………….. 348 9.5.3 Manage Team: Outputs ………………………………………………………………………… 350 9.6 Control Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 352 9.6.1 Control Resources: Inputs…………………………………………………………………….. 354 9.6.2 Control Resources: Tools and Techniques………………………………………………. 356 9.6.3 Control Resources: Outputs ………………………………………………………………….. 357 10. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT ……………………………………………………………. 359 10.1 Plan Communications Management ……………………………………………………………….. 366 10.1.1 Plan Communications Management: Inputs …………………………………………. 368 10.1.2 Plan Communications Management: Tools and Techniques …………………… 369 10.1.3 Plan Communications Management: Outputs……………………………………….. 377 10.2 Manage Communications ……………………………………………………………………………… 379 10.2.1 Manage Communications: Inputs ………………………………………………………… 381 10.2.2 Manage Communications: Tools and Techniques ………………………………….. 383 10.2.3 Manage Communications: Outputs ……………………………………………………… 387 10.3 Monitor Communications ………………………………………………………………………………. 388 10.3.1 Monitor Communications: Inputs ………………………………………………………… 390 10.3.2 Monitor Communications: Tools and Techniques ………………………………….. 391 10.3.3 Monitor Communications: Outputs ………………………………………………………. 392 11. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………… 395 11.1 Plan Risk Management …………………………………………………………………………………. 401 11.1.1 Plan Risk Management: Inputs ……………………………………………………………. 402 11.1.2 Plan Risk Management: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………… 404 11.1.3 Plan Risk Management: Outputs …………………………………………………………. 405 VII 11.2 Identify Risks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 409 11.2.1 Identify Risks: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………. 411 11.2.2 Identify Risks: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………… 414 11.2.3 Identify Risks: Outputs ……………………………………………………………………….. 417 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ………………………………………………………………….. 419 11.3.1 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs …………………………………………….. 421 11.3.2 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Tools and Techniques ………………………. 422 11.3.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Outputs ………………………………………….. 427 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ………………………………………………………………… 428 11.4.1 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs ………………………………………….. 430 11.4.2 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Tools and Techniques ……………………. 431 11.4.3 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Outputs ………………………………………… 436 11.5 Plan Risk Responses …………………………………………………………………………………….. 437 11.5.1 Plan Risk Responses: Inputs ………………………………………………………………. 439 11.5.2 Plan Risk Responses: Tools and Techniques ………………………………………… 441 11.5.3 Plan Risk Responses: Outputs …………………………………………………………….. 447 11.6 Implement Risk Responses ……………………………………………………………………………. 449 11.6.1 Implement Risk Responses: Inputs ……………………………………………………… 450 11.6.2 Implement Risk Responses: Tools and Techniques ……………………………….. 451 11.6.3 Implement Risk Responses: Outputs……………………………………………………. 451 11.7 Monitor Risks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 453 11.7.1 Monitor Risks: Inputs …………………………………………………………………………. 455 11.7.2 Monitor Risks: Tools and Techniques …………………………………………………… 456 11.7.3 Monitor Risks: Outputs ………………………………………………………………………. 457 12. PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………………………. 459 12.1 Plan Procurement Management …………………………………………………………………….. 466 12.1.1 Plan Procurement Management: Inputs……………………………………………….. 468 12.1.2 Plan Procurement Management: Tools and Techniques …………………………. 472 12.1.3 Plan Procurement Management: Outputs …………………………………………….. 475 VIII Table of Contents 12.2 Conduct Procurements ………………………………………………………………………………….. 482 12.2.1 Conduct Procurements: Inputs ……………………………………………………………. 484 12.2.2 Conduct Procurements: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………… 487 12.2.3 Conduct Procurements: Outputs………………………………………………………….. 488 12.3 Control Procurements …………………………………………………………………………………… 492 12.3.1 Control Procurements: Inputs ……………………………………………………………… 495 12.3.2 Control Procurements: Tools and Techniques ……………………………………….. 497 12.3.3 Control Procurements: Outputs …………………………………………………………… 499 13. PROJECT STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT ………………………………………………………………….. 503 13.1 Identify Stakeholders ……………………………………………………………………………………. 507 13.1.1 Identify Stakeholders: Inputs………………………………………………………………. 509 13.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and Techniques………………………………………… 511 13.1.3 Identify Stakeholders: Outputs ……………………………………………………………. 514 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement ……………………………………………………………………….. 516 13.2.1 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs …………………………………………………. 518 13.2.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques …………………………… 520 13.2.3 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs……………………………………………….. 522 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement ………………………………………………………………….. 523 13.3.1 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs ……………………………………………. 525 13.3.2 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques ……………………… 526 13.3.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs………………………………………….. 528 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement ………………………………………………………………….. 530 13.4.1 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs…………………………………………….. 532 13.4.2 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques………………………. 533 13.4.3 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs ………………………………………….. 535 REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 537 IX PART 2. THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 541 1.1 Projects and Project Management……………………………………………………………………. 542 1.2 Relationships Among Portfolios, Programs, and Projects …………………………………… 543 1.3 Linking Organizational Governance and Project Governance ……………………………… 545 1.4 Project Success and Benefits Management ………………………………………………………. 546 1.5 The Project Life Cycle ……………………………………………………………………………………… 547 1.6 Project Stakeholders ………………………………………………………………………………………. 550 1.7 Role of the Project Manager…………………………………………………………………………….. 552 1.8 Project Management Knowledge Areas ……………………………………………………………. 553 1.9 Project Management Process Groups ………………………………………………………………. 554 1.10 Enterprise Environmental Factors and Organizational Process Assets ………………. 557 1.11 Tailoring the Project Artifacts ………………………………………………………………………… 558 2. INITIATING PROCESS GROUP ……………………………………………………………………………………. 561 2.1 Develop Project Charter ………………………………………………………………………………….. 563 2.2 Identify Stakeholders ……………………………………………………………………………………… 563 2.2.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 564 2.2.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 564 2.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 564 2.2.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 564 3. PLANNING PROCESS GROUP …………………………………………………………………………………….. 565 3.1 Develop Project Management Plan …………………………………………………………………… 567 3.2 Plan Scope Management…………………………………………………………………………………. 567 3.2.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 568 3.3 Collect Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………… 568 3.3.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 568 3.3.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 569 X Table of Contents 3.4 Define Scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 569 3.4.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 569 3.4.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 569 3.4.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 570 3.5 Create WBS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 570 3.5.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 570 3.5.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 571 3.5.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 571 3.6 Plan Schedule Management ……………………………………………………………………………. 571 3.6.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 572 3.7 Define Activities……………………………………………………………………………………………… 572 3.7.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 572 3.7.2 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 572 3.8 Sequence Activities ………………………………………………………………………………………… 573 3.8.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 573 3.8.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 573 3.8.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 573 3.9 Estimate Activity Durations……………………………………………………………………………… 574 3.9.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 574 3.9.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 574 3.9.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 575 3.10 Develop Schedule …………………………………………………………………………………………. 575 3.10.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 575 3.10.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 576 3.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 576 3.10.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 576 3.11 Plan Cost Management …………………………………………………………………………………. 577 3.11.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 577 XI 3.12 Estimate Costs ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 577 3.12.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 578 3.12.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 578 3.12.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 578 3.13 Determine Budget …………………………………………………………………………………………. 578 3.13.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 579 3.13.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 579 3.13.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 579 3.14 Plan Quality Management ……………………………………………………………………………… 580 3.14.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 580 3.14.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 580 3.14.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 581 3.14.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 581 3.15 Plan Resource Management ………………………………………………………………………….. 581 3.15.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 582 3.15.2 Project Documents …………………………………………………………………………….. 582 3.15.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 582 3.16 Estimate Activity Resources ………………………………………………………………………….. 582 3.16.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 583 3.16.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 583 3.16.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 583 3.17 Plan Communications Management ……………………………………………………………….. 584 3.17.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 584 3.17.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 584 3.17.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 584 3.17.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 585 3.18 Plan Risk Management …………………………………………………………………………………. 585 3.18.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 585 3.18.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 585 XII Table of Contents 3.19 Identify Risks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 586 3.19.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 586 3.19.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 587 3.19.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 587 3.20 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ………………………………………………………………….. 588 3.20.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 588 3.20.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 588 3.20.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 589 3.21 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ………………………………………………………………… 589 3.21.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 589 3.21.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 590 3.21.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 590 3.22 Plan Risk Responses …………………………………………………………………………………….. 590 3.22.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 591 3.22.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 591 3.22.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 591 3.22.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 592 3.23 Plan Procurement Management …………………………………………………………………….. 592 3.23.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 593 3.23.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 593 3.23.3 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 593 3.24 Plan Stakeholder Engagement ……………………………………………………………………….. 594 3.24.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 594 3.24.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 594 4. EXECUTING PROCESS GROUP …………………………………………………………………………………… 595 4.1 Direct and Manage Project Work ……………………………………………………………………… 597 4.1.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 597 4.1.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 597 4.1.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 598 4.1.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 598 XIII 4.2 Manage Project Knowledge …………………………………………………………………………….. 598 4.2.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 599 4.2.2 Project Documents ………………………………………………………………………………. 599 4.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 599 4.3 Manage Quality ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 599 4.3.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 600 4.3.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 600 4.3.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 600 4.3.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 600 4.4 Acquire Resources …………………………………………………………………………………………. 601 4.4.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 601 4.4.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 601 4.4.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 602 4.4.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 602 4.5 Develop Team…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 602 4.5.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 603 4.5.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 603 4.5.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 603 4.5.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 603 4.6 Manage Team…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 604 4.6.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 604 4.6.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 604 4.6.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 605 4.6.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 605 4.7 Manage Communications ……………………………………………………………………………….. 605 4.7.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 606 4.7.2 Project Documents Example …………………………………………………………………. 606 4.7.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 606 4.7.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 606 XIV Table of Contents 4.8 Implement Risk Responses ……………………………………………………………………………… 607 4.8.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 607 4.8.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 607 4.8.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 607 4.9 Conduct Procurements ……………………………………………………………………………………. 608 4.9.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 608 4.9.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 609 4.9.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 609 4.9.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 609 4.10 Manage Stakeholder Engagement ………………………………………………………………….. 610 4.10.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 610 4.10.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 610 4.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 611 4.10.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 611 5. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING PROCESS GROUP …………………………………………………… 613 5.1 Monitor and Control Project Work ……………………………………………………………………. 615 5.1.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 615 5.1.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 615 5.1.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 616 5.1.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 616 5.2 Perform Integrated Change Control ………………………………………………………………….. 616 5.2.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 617 5.2.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 617 5.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 617 5.2.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 617 5.3 Validate Scope ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 618 5.3.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 618 5.3.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 618 5.3.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 619 XV 5.4 Control Scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 619 5.4.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 619 5.4.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 620 5.4.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 620 5.4.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 620 5.5 Control Schedule ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 621 5.5.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 621 5.5.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 621 5.5.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 622 5.5.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 622 5.6 Control Costs …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 622 5.6.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 623 5.6.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 623 5.6.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 623 5.6.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 623 5.7 Control Quality ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 624 5.7.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 624 5.7.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 624 5.7.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 625 5.7.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 625 5.8 Control Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 625 5.8.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 626 5.8.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 626 5.8.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 626 5.8.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 626 5.9 Monitor Communications ………………………………………………………………………………… 627 5.9.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 627 5.9.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 627 5.9.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………….. 628 5.9.4 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 628 XVI Table of Contents 5.10 Monitor Risks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 628 5.10.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 629 5.10.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 629 5.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 629 5.10.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 629 5.11 Control Procurements …………………………………………………………………………………… 629 5.11.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 630 5.11.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 630 5.11.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 631 5.11.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 631 5.12 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement ………………………………………………………………….. 631 5.12.1 Project Management Plan Components ……………………………………………….. 632 5.12.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………… 632 5.12.3 Project Management Plan Updates ……………………………………………………… 632 5.12.4 Project Documents Updates ……………………………………………………………….. 632 6. CLOSING PROCESS GROUP……………………………………………………………………………………….. 633 6.1 Close Project or Phase ……………………………………………………………………………………. 634 6.1.1 Project Management Plan Components …………………………………………………. 634 6.1.2 Project Documents Examples ……………………………………………………………….. 635 6.1.3 Project Documents Updates …………………………………………………………………. 635 XVII PART 3. APPENDICES, GLOSSARY, AND INDEX APPENDIX X1 SIXTH EDITION CHANGES ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 639 APPENDIX X2 CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS OF THE PMBOK® GUIDE—SIXTH EDITION…………………….. 651 APPENDIX X3 AGILE, ITERATIVE, ADAPTIVE, AND HYBRID PROJECT ENVIRONMENTS ……………………………. 665 APPENDIX X4 SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS FOR KNOWLEDGE AREAS………………………………………………… 673 APPENDIX X5 SUMMARY OF TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS FOR KNOWLEDGE AREAS ……………………………. 679 APPENDIX X6 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 685 GLOSSARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 695 XVIII Table of Contents LI ST OF TA BL ES A ND FIG U RES PART 1. A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® Guide) Figure 1-1. Organizational State Transition via a Project …………………………………………….. 6 Figure 1-2. Project Initiation Context…………………………………………………………………………. 8 Figure 1-3. Portfolio, Programs, Projects, and Operations………………………………………….. 12 Figure 1-4. Organizational Project Management ………………………………………………………. 17 Figure 1-5. Interrelationship of PMBOK® Guide Key Components in Projects ………………. 18 Figure 1-6. Example Process: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………. 22 Figure 1-7. Project Data, Information, and Report Flow …………………………………………….. 27 Figure 1-8. Interrelationship of Needs Assessment and Critical Business/ Project Documents ……………………………………………………………………………….. 30 Figure 2-1. Project Influences …………………………………………………………………………………. 37 Figure 3-1. Example of Project Manager’s Sphere of Influence ………………………………….. 53 Figure 3-2. The PMI Talent Triangle® ……………………………………………………………………….. 57 Figure 4-1. Project Integration Management Overview ……………………………………………… 71 Figure 4-2. Develop Project Charter: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs…………….. 75 Figure 4-3. Develop Project Charter: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………… 76 Figure 4-4. Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82 XIX Figure 4-5. Develop Project Management Plan: Data Flow Diagram …………………………… 82 Figure 4-6. Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90 Figure 4-7. Direct and Manage Project Work: Data Flow Diagram………………………………. 91 Figure 4-8. Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs……….. 98 Figure 4-9. Manage Project Knowledge: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………… 99 Figure 4-10. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 105 Figure 4-11. Monitor and Control Project Work: Data Flow Diagram …………………………… 106 Figure 4-12. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 113 Figure 4-13. Perform Integrated Change Control: Data Flow Diagram ………………………… 114 Figure 4-14. Close Project or Phase: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………….. 121 Figure 4-15. Close Project or Phase: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………… 122 Figure 5-1. Project Scope Management Overview …………………………………………………… 130 Figure 5-2. Plan Scope Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………. 134 Figure 5-3. Plan Scope Management: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………….. 134 Figure 5-4. Collect Requirements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………… 138 Figure 5-5. Collect Requirements: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………….. 139 Figure 5-6. Context Diagram …………………………………………………………………………………. 146 Figure 5-7. Example of a Requirements Traceability Matrix …………………………………….. 149 Figure 5-8. Define Scope: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………………………….. 150 Figure 5-9. Define Scope: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………………………… 151 Figure 5-10. Create WBS: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………………………. 156 Figure 5-11. Create WBS: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………………………… 156 Figure 5-12. Sample WBS Decomposed Down Through Work Packages……………………… 158 Figure 5-13. Sample WBS Organized by Phase …………………………………………………………. 159 XX List of Tables and Figures Figure 5-14. Sample WBS with Major Deliverables……………………………………………………. 160 Figure 5-15. Validate Scope: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………………….. 163 Figure 5-16. Validate Scope: Data Flow Diagram………………………………………………………. 164 Figure 5-17. Control Scope: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………………. 167 Figure 5-18. Control Scope: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………….. 168 Figure 6-1. Project Schedule Management Overview ………………………………………………. 174 Figure 6-2. Scheduling Overview …………………………………………………………………………… 176 Figure 6-3. Plan Schedule Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …….. 179 Figure 6-4. Plan Schedule Management: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………… 179 Figure 6-5. Define Activities: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………………… 183 Figure 6-6. Define Activities: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………. 183 Figure 6-7. Sequence Activities: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………………… 187 Figure 6-8. Sequence Activities: Data Flow Diagram……………………………………………….. 187 Figure 6-9. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Relationship Types …………………. 190 Figure 6-10. Examples of Lead and Lag …………………………………………………………………… 192 Figure 6-11. Project Schedule Network Diagram ………………………………………………………. 193 Figure 6-12. Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……… 195 Figure 6-13. Estimate Activity Durations: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………. 196 Figure 6-14. Develop Schedule: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………… 205 Figure 6-15. Develop Schedule: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………………….. 206 Figure 6-16. Example of Critical Path Method…………………………………………………………… 211 Figure 6-17. Resource Leveling ………………………………………………………………………………. 212 Figure 6-18. Example Probability Distribution of a Target Milestone…………………………… 214 Figure 6-19. Schedule Compression Comparison ……………………………………………………… 215 Figure 6-20. Relationship Between Product Vision, Release Planning, and Iteration Planning …………………………………………………………………………. 216 XXI Figure 6-21. Project Schedule Presentations—Examples ………………………………………….. 219 Figure 6-22. Control Schedule: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs…………………….. 222 Figure 6-23. Control Schedule: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………………… 223 Figure 6-24. Iteration Burndown Chart …………………………………………………………………….. 226 Figure 7-1. Project Cost Management Overview ……………………………………………………… 232 Figure 7-2. Plan Cost Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs……………. 235 Figure 7-3. Plan Cost Management: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………….. 235 Figure 7-4. Estimate Costs: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………………….. 240 Figure 7-5. Estimate Costs: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………… 240 Figure 7-6. Determine Budget: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………… 248 Figure 7-7. Determine Budget: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………………. 249 Figure 7-8. Project Budget Components…………………………………………………………………. 255 Figure 7-9. Cost Baseline, Expenditures, and Funding Requirements ……………………….. 255 Figure 7-10. Control Costs: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………….. 257 Figure 7-11. Control Costs: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………………………… 258 Figure 7-12. Earned Value, Planned Value, and Actual Costs ……………………………………… 264 Figure 7-13. To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI) …………………………………………………. 268 Figure 8-1. Project Quality Management Overview………………………………………………….. 272 Figure 8-2. Major Project Quality Management Process Interrelations ……………………… 273 Figure 8-3. Plan Quality Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……….. 277 Figure 8-4. Plan Quality Management: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………. 278 Figure 8-5. Cost of Quality…………………………………………………………………………………….. 283 Figure 8-6. The SIPOC Model…………………………………………………………………………………. 285 Figure 8-7. Manage Quality: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………………………. 288 Figure 8-8. Manage Quality: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………………….. 289 Figure 8-9. Cause-and-Effect Diagram…………………………………………………………………… 294 XXII List of Tables and Figures Figure 8-10. Control Quality: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………………….. 298 Figure 8-11. Control Quality: Data Flow Diagram………………………………………………………. 299 Figure 8-12. Check Sheets ……………………………………………………………………………………… 302 Figure 9-1. Project Resource Management Overview………………………………………………. 308 Figure 9-2. Plan Resource Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……. 312 Figure 9-3. Plan Resource Management: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………… 313 Figure 9-4. Sample RACI Chart ……………………………………………………………………………… 317 Figure 9-5. Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs…….. 321 Figure 9-6. Estimate Activity Resources: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………… 321 Figure 9-7. Sample Resource Breakdown Structure………………………………………………… 327 Figure 9-8. Acquire Resources: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………………….. 328 Figure 9-9. Acquire Resources: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………………… 329 Figure 9-10. Develop Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………………. 336 Figure 9-11. Develop Team: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………….. 337 Figure 9-12. Manage Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………………. 345 Figure 9-13. Manage Team: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………….. 346 Figure 9-14. Control Resources: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs…………………… 352 Figure 9-15. Control Resources: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………………. 353 Figure 10-1. Project Communications Overview ……………………………………………………….. 360 Figure 10-2. Plan Communications Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 366 Figure 10-3. Plan Communications Management: Data Flow Diagram ……………………….. 367 Figure 10-4. Communication Model for Cross-Cultural Communication ……………………… 373 Figure 10-5. Manage Communications: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………… 379 Figure 10-6. Manage Communications: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………. 380 Figure 10-7. Monitor Communications: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………… 388 XXIII Figure 10-8. Monitor Communications: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………. 389 Figure 11-1. Project Risk Management Overview ……………………………………………………… 396 Figure 11-2. Plan Risk Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs……………. 401 Figure 11-3. Plan Risk Management: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………….. 402 Figure 11-4. Extract from Sample Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) …………………………… 406 Figure 11-5. Example Probability and Impact Matrix with Scoring Scheme ………………… 408 Figure 11-6. Identify Risks: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………………. 409 Figure 11-7. Identify Risks: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………….. 410 Figure 11-8. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 419 Figure 11-9. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram …………………………… 420 Figure 11-10. Example Bubble Chart Showing Detectability, Proximity, and Impact Value ………………………………………………………………………………… 426 Figure 11-11. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 428 Figure 11-12. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram …………………………. 429 Figure 11-13. Example S-Curve from Quantitative Cost Risk Analysis ………………………….. 433 Figure 11-14. Example Tornado Diagram …………………………………………………………………… 434 Figure 11-15. Example Decision Tree ………………………………………………………………………… 435 Figure 11-16. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ………………. 437 Figure 11-17. Plan Risk Responses: Data Flow Diagram……………………………………………… 438 Figure 11-18. Implement Risk Responses: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……… 449 Figure 11-19. Implement Risk Responses: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………. 449 Figure 11-20. Monitor Risks: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …………………………. 453 Figure 11-21. Monitor Risks: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………………….. 454 Figure 12-1. XXIV Project Procurement Management Overview …………………………………………. 460 List of Tables and Figures Figure 12-2. Plan Procurement Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …. 466 Figure 12-3. Plan Procurement Management: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………… 467 Figure 12-4. Conduct Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………. 482 Figure 12-5. Conduct Procurements: Data Flow Diagram ………………………………………….. 483 Figure 12-6. Control Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs ……………… 492 Figure 12-7. Control Procurements: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………………………. 493 Figure 13-1. Project Stakeholder Management Overview ………………………………………….. 504 Figure 13-2. Identify Stakeholders: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………. 507 Figure 13-3. Identify Stakeholders: Data Flow Diagram …………………………………………….. 508 Figure 13-4. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs …. 516 Figure 13-5. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram ……………………………….. 517 Figure 13-6. Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix ……………………………………….. 522 Figure 13-7. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 523 Figure 13-8. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram ………………………….. 524 Figure 13-9. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs………………………………………………………………………………………… 530 Figure 13-10. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram …………………………… 531 Table 1-1. Examples of Factors that Lead to the Creation of a Project ………………………… 9 Table 1-2. Comparative Overview of Portfolios, Programs, and Projects ……………………. 13 Table 1-3. Description of PMBOK® Guide Key Components ………………………………………. 18 Table 1-4. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping ………….. 25 Table 1-5. Project Business Documents …………………………………………………………………. 29 Table 2-1. Influences of Organizational Structures on Projects ………………………………… 47 Table 3-1. Team Management and Team Leadership Compared ……………………………….. 64 XXV Table 4-1. Project Management Plan and Project Documents…………………………………… 89 Table 5-1. Elements of the Project Charter and Project Scope Statement ………………… 155 Table 7-1. Earned Value Calculations Summary Table ……………………………………………. 267 Table 11-1. Example of Definitions for Probability and Impacts ……………………………….. 407 Table 12-1. Comparison of Procurement Documentation …………………………………………. 481 PART 2. The Standard For Project Management Figure 1-1. Example of Portfolio, Program, and Project Management Interfaces ……….. 544 Figure 1-2. Generic Depiction of a Project Life Cycle……………………………………………….. 548 Figure 1-3. Impact of Variables Over Time ……………………………………………………………… 549 Figure 1-4. Examples of Project Stakeholders ………………………………………………………… 551 Figure 1-5. Example of Process Group Interactions Within a Project or Phase …………… 555 Figure 2-1. Project Boundaries ……………………………………………………………………………… 562 Figure 2-2. Initiating Process Group ………………………………………………………………………. 562 Figure 2-3. Develop Project Charter: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………. 563 Figure 2-4. Identify Stakeholders: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………….. 563 Figure 3-1. Planning Process Group ………………………………………………………………………. 566 Figure 3-2. Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs and Outputs …………………………. 567 Figure 3-3. Plan Scope Management: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………….. 567 Figure 3-4. Collect Requirements: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………….. 568 Figure 3-5. Define Scope: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………………………… 569 Figure 3-6. Create WBS: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………………………… 570 Figure 3-7. Plan Schedule Management: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………… 571 Figure 3-8. Define Activities: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………………. 572 XXVI List of Tables and Figures Figure 3-9. Sequence Activities: Inputs and Outputs……………………………………………….. 573 Figure 3-10. Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………. 574 Figure 3-11. Develop Schedule: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………………….. 575 Figure 3-12. Plan Cost Management: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………….. 577 Figure 3-13. Estimate Costs: Inputs and Outputs………………………………………………………. 577 Figure 3-14. Determine Budget: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………………. 579 Figure 3-15. Plan Quality Management: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………. 580 Figure 3-16. Plan Resource Management: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………… 581 Figure 3-17. Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………… 583 Figure 3-18. Plan Communications Management: Inputs and Outputs ……………………….. 584 Figure 3-19. Plan Risk Management: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………….. 585 Figure 3-20. Identify Risks: Inputs and Outputs………………………………………………………… 586 Figure 3-21. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs and Outputs …………………………… 588 Figure 3-22. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs and Outputs …………………………. 589 Figure 3-23. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………… 590 Figure 3-24. Plan Procurement Management: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………… 592 Figure 3-25. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………….. 594 Figure 4-1. Executing Process Group …………………………………………………………………….. 596 Figure 4-2. Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs and Outputs …………………………….. 597 Figure 4-3. Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………. 598 Figure 4-4. Manage Quality: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………………….. 599 Figure 4-5. Acquire Resources: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………………… 601 Figure 4-6. Develop Team: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………………….. 602 Figure 4-7. Manage Team: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………………….. 604 Figure 4-8. Manage Communications: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………. 605 Figure 4-9. Implement Risk Responses: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………. 607 XXVII Figure 4-10. Conduct Procurements: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………….. 608 Figure 4-11. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs and Outputs ………………………….. 610 Figure 5-1. Monitoring and Controlling Process Group ……………………………………………. 614 Figure 5-2. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs and Outputs …………………………… 615 Figure 5-3. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs and Outputs…………………………. 616 Figure 5-4. Validate Scope: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………………………. 618 Figure 5-5. Control Scope: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………………….. 619 Figure 5-6. Control Schedule: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………………… 621 Figure 5-7. Control Costs: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………………………… 622 Figure 5-8. Control Quality: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………………………. 624 Figure 5-9. Control Resources: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………………. 625 Figure 5-10. Monitor Communications: Inputs and Outputs ………………………………………. 627 Figure 5-11. Monitor Risks: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………………….. 628 Figure 5-12. Control Procurements: Inputs and Outputs ……………………………………………. 630 Figure 5-13. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs and Outputs …………………………… 631 Figure 6-1. Closing Process Group ………………………………………………………………………… 633 Figure 6-2. Close Project or Phase: Inputs and Outputs …………………………………………… 634 Table 1-1. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Area Mapping ………… 556 Table 1-2. Project Management Plan and Project Documents…………………………………. 559 XXVIII List of Tables and Figures PART 3. APPENDICES, GLOSSARY, AND INDEX Figure X3-1. The Continuum of Project Life Cycles ……………………………………………………. 666 Figure X3-2. Level of Effort for Process Groups across Iteration Cycles ……………………… 667 Figure X3-3. Relationship of Process Groups in Continuous Phases …………………………… 668 Table X1-1. Section 4 Changes ………………………………………………………………………………. 645 Table X1-2. Section 6 Changes ………………………………………………………………………………. 646 Table X1-3. Section 8 Changes ………………………………………………………………………………. 646 Table X1-4. Section 9 Changes ………………………………………………………………………………. 647 Table X1-5. Section 10 Changes …………………………………………………………………………….. 648 Table X1-6. Section 11 Changes …………………………………………………………………………….. 648 Table X1-7. Section 12 Changes …………………………………………………………………………….. 649 Table X1-8. Section 13 Changes …………………………………………………………………………….. 650 Table X6-1. Categorization and Index of Tools and Techniques …………………………………. 686 XXIX XXX Sa le or R A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ep ro du ct io n . Part 1 N ot (PMBOK ® GUIDE ) The information contained in this part is not an American National Standard (ANS) and has not been processed in accordance with ANSI’s requirements for an ANS. As such, the information in this part may contain material that has not been subjected to public review or a consensus process. In addition, it does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to an ANS standard. 1 IN T ROD U CTIO N 1.1 OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE Project management is not new. It has been in use for hundreds of years. Examples of project outcomes include: Pyramids of Giza, uu uu Olympic games, uu Great Wall of China, Taj Mahal, uu uu Publication of a children’s book, uu Panama Canal, Development of commercial jet airplanes, uu Polio vaccine, uu uu Human beings landing on the moon, uu Commercial software applications, Portable devices to use the global positioning system (GPS), and uu uu Placement of the International Space Station into Earth’s orbit. The outcomes of these projects were the result of leaders and managers applying project management practices, principles, processes, tools, and techniques to their work. The managers of these projects used a set of key skills and applied knowledge to satisfy their customers and other people involved in and affected by the project. By the mid-20th century, project managers began the work of seeking recognition for project management as a profession. One aspect of this work involved obtaining agreement on the content of the body of knowledge (BOK) called project management. This BOK became known as the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). The Project Management Institute (PMI) produced a baseline of charts and glossaries for the PMBOK. Project managers soon realized that no single book could contain the entire PMBOK. Therefore, PMI developed and published A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). PMI defines the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) as a term that describes the knowledge within the profession of project management. The project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. 1 The body of knowledge (BOK) includes both published and unpublished materials. This body of knowledge is constantly evolving. This PMBOK® Guide identifies a subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice. Generally recognized means the knowledge and practices described are applicable to most projects most of the uu time, and there is consensus about their value and usefulness. uu Good practice means there is general agreement that the application of the knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project management processes can enhance the chance of success over many projects in delivering the expected business values and results. The project manager works with the project team and other stakeholders to determine and use the appropriate generally recognized good practices for each project. Determining the appropriate combination of processes, inputs, tools, techniques, outputs and life cycle phases to manage a project is referred to as “tailoring” the application of the knowledge described in this guide. This PMBOK® Guide is different from a methodology. A methodology is a system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline. This PMBOK® Guide is a foundation upon which organizations can build methodologies, policies, procedures, rules, tools and techniques, and life cycle phases needed to practice project management. 1.1.1 THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT This guide is based on The Standard for Project Management [1]. A standard is a document established by an authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example. As an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard, The Standard for Project Management was developed using a process based on the concepts of consensus, openness, due process, and balance. The Standard for Project Management is a foundational reference for PMI’s project management professional development programs and the practice of project management. Because project management needs to be tailored to fit the needs of the project, the standard and the guide are both based on descriptive practices, rather than prescriptive practices. Therefore, the standard identifies the processes that are considered good practices on most projects, most of the time. The standard also identifies the inputs and outputs that are usually associated with those processes. The standard does not require that any particular process or practice be performed. The Standard for Project Management is included as Part II of A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). The PMBOK® Guide provides more detail about key concepts, emerging trends, considerations for tailoring the project management processes, and information on how tools and techniques are applied to projects. Project managers may use one or more methodologies to implement the project management processes outlined in the standard. 2 Part 1 – Guide The scope of this guide is limited to the discipline of project management, rather than the full spectrum of portfolios, programs, and projects. Portfolios and programs will be addressed only to the degree they interact with projects. PMI publishes two other standards that address the management of portfolios and programs: The Standard for Portfolio Management [2], and uu The Standard for Program Management [3]. uu 1.1.2 COMMON VOCABULARY A common vocabulary is an essential element of a professional discipline. The PMI Lexicon of Project Management Terms [4] provides the foundational professional vocabulary that can be consistently used by organizations, portfolio, program, and project managers and other project stakeholders. The Lexicon will continue to evolve over time. The glossary to this guide includes the vocabulary in the Lexicon along with additional definitions. There may be other industry-specific terms used in projects that are defined by that industry’s literature. 1.1.3 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT PMI publishes the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct [5] to instill confidence in the project management profession and to help an individual in making wise decisions, particularly when faced with difficult situations where the individual may be asked to compromise his or her integrity or values. The values that the global project management community defined as most important were responsibility, respect, fairness, and honesty. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct affirms these four values as its foundation. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct includes both aspirational standards and mandatory standards. The aspirational standards describe the conduct that practitioners, who are also PMI members, certification holders, or volunteers, strive to uphold. Although adherence to the aspirational standards is not easily measured, conduct in accordance with these is an expectation for those who consider themselves to be professionals—it is not optional. The mandatory standards establish firm requirements and, in some cases, limit or prohibit practitioner behavior. Practitioners who are also PMI members, certification holders, or volunteers and who do not conduct themselves in accordance with these standards will be subject to disciplinary procedures before PMI’s Ethics Review Committee. 3 1.2 FOUNDATIONAL ELEMENTS This section describes foundational elements necessary for working in and understanding the discipline of project management. 1.2.1 PROJECTS A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Unique product, service, or result. Projects are undertaken to fulfill objectives by producing deliverables. uu An objective is defined as an outcome toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed. A deliverable is defined as any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a proces…

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