(Mt) – Impact of Telegram Use on Academic Achievement Questionnaire

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IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORE CARD (BSC) ON THE QUALITY OF SERVICE IN RIYADH AIRPORTS BASED ON THE SAUDI VISION 2030 Research Variables: Independent Variable: The dimensions of the Balanced Score Card (BSC) financial – customers – internal operations – learning and growth Dependent Variable: Service Quality internal operationsH3 learning and growth H1 H4 Balanced Score H (BSC) Card financial customers H2 H5 Service Quality Hypotheses: H1: There is a statistically significant Impact of financial on Service Quality H2: There is a statistically significant Impact of customers on Service Quality H3: There is a statistically significant Impact of internal operations on Service Quality H4: There is a statistically significant Impact of learning and growth on Service Quality H5: There is a statistically significant Impact of Balanced Score Card (BSC) on Service Quality Questionnaire Demographics items N. % Male Gender Female Less than 25 years 25-30 years Age 31-40 years 41-50 years More than 50 years High School Vocational Education Educational level Bachelor Master PhD Student Business/Trade/Entrepreneur Occupation Private Sector Employee Government Sector Employee Unemployed Study axes Balanced Score Card (BSC) Variable Dimensions Code items Financial F1 Self-revenue is sufficient from the point of view of Riyadh airports F2 Stephen The available resources and capabilities Kagunyi, (2014), are exploited to achieve the objectives at Wanjau, Application of Balanced the lowest cost F3 There is a financial performance control at Competitve Advantage at Riyadh airports (F) References Scorecard in Creating Kenya Commercial Bank F4 Riyadh Airports is interested in paying all Limited, Master Thesis, University of Nairobi the dues required of it in a timely manner F5 The cost of services provided to customers is clear and specific C1 Riyadh Airports strives to serve customers Jarira, Talal Suleiman, fairly 2014, The extent of C2 The customer can easily meet the officials. C3 Customers can communicate with Riyadh the Balanced Scorecard airports with ease (BSC) In the public C4 food Riyadh Airports seeks to know the shareholding opinions of customers in evaluating its industries companies in Jordan – a field study, services C5 Customer complaints and comments are Administrative, Volume answered by direct communication with 41, Issue 2, pp. 259 – 274 him internal operations IO1 Riyadh airports have a clear and approved operations manual Kaplan, Robert S. and (IO) IO2 The strengths and weaknesses of Riyadh Atkinson Anthony A. Advanced airports are determined after reviewing (1998). Management Accounting, their internal procedures IO3 Riyadh airports program its administrative Printice Hall.p 371-374 and financial operations to facilitate the completion of tasks Customers (C) performance evaluation using the dimensions of studies, (3 ed.). science New Jersey: Dimensions learning and growth Code items IO4 Riyadh Airports Department develops the concept of self-monitoring for workers in the performance of their work IO5 Riyadh Airports is constantly developing its services LG1 The Riyadh Airports Department is concerned with developing the current skills and capabilities of employees to reach the required level LG2 Riyadh airports provide adequate and Mavlutova, Inese, and appropriate training programs for Babauska, Santa, (2013), The Competitivness and employees LG3 The Riyadh Airports Department is Health Care Companies, concerned with innovation and creativity (LG) References Balanced Scorecard of International Journal of LG4 LG5 Riyadh Airports allocates budget for staff training an annual Synergy and Research, vol.2, No.2. pp.107-128 The Riyadh Airports Department is interested in informing employees of all the changes and developments taking place in the various fields of work Service Quality Variable Dimensions Code items References Dimensions Code items References T1 Riyadh airports have advanced and hightech equipment and equipment that contribute to increasing the quality of service provided T2 Riyadh Airports employees have a good Nagy, J., Popp, J., & Oláh, J. appearance that encourages customers to (2019). The service quality deal with them Pakurár, M., Haddad, H., dimensions Tangibility (T) that affect T3 The general appearance of Riyadh airports customer satisfaction in the is consistent with the nature of the services Jordanian banking sector. it provides to customers Sustainability, 11(4), 1113. T4 The design of Riyadh airports buildings and their internal arrangement makes it easier for the customer to obtain the service D1 Riyadh Airports is committed to performing all required work at the Sanjiv Mittal , Rajat Gera , specified times Dharminder Kumar Batra , Reliability (R) D2 Riyadh airports provide the required (2015) “An evaluation of an service correctly and from the first time integrated perspective of D3 Riyadh Airports performs all required retail banking services in services on the date agreed upon with the India”, International Journal customer perceived service quality for of Bank Marketing, Vol. 33 D4 Riyadh Airports employs distinguished Iss: 3, p.345 expertise to rely on them to provide high quality services S1 Workers at Riyadh airports can be trusted S2 I feel safe when dealing with workers at banking service from the Riyadh airports Al-Jasmi, Bassem Abbas Kreidi, 2552, The quality of point of view of the customer S3 Personnel at Riyadh airports have / entrance An sufficient knowledge to answer various evaluation/exploratory study customer questions of the opinions of a sample of Dimensions Code Safety S4 (S) items References Riyadh Airports provides all the services customers of Al-Diwaniyah banks, Al-Qadisiyah Journal that customers need at any time of Administrative Sciences. The Economist, Volume 4, Issue 1. D1 Pakurár, M., Haddad, H., D2 The employees of Riyadh airports are Nagy, J., Popp, J., & Oláh, J. distinguished by their polite and courteous (2019). The service quality behavior dimensions that affect D3 Riyadh Airports places solving customer Jordanian banking sector. problems as a top priority Response (R) Riyadh Airports takes care of customers’ problems and answers their inquiries customer satisfaction in the Sustainability, 11(4), 1113. Sympathy D4 Riyadh Airports is interested in providing services to customers electronically SY1 Riyadh airports accurately determine the Al-Taweel, Akram Ahmed and Al-Jalili, Alaa Haseeb time of completion of the service SY2 Riyadh Airports provides the service to 2515, customers immediately and Wahhab, Riad Jamil, the possibility establishing (SY) of quality SY3 Workers at Riyadh airports are always dimensions Health services, a ready to provide assistance study in a selected group of SY4 Workers at Riyadh airports respond to Governorate, Tikrit Journal requests immediately, no matter how busy Administrative and they are hospitals in Nineveh Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 1 PUT HERE THE FULL TITLE OF YOUR THESIS. THESIS TITLE Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BY PUT YOUR NAME HERE Under Supervision Supervisors Name COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL SCIENCES SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 2020 Declaration Certificate The work entitled, ‘‘Put Your Title of Thesis Here’’, embodies the results of the original research work carried out by me in the College of Administrative and Financial Sciences, Department of Business Administration Saudi Electronic University. This research work has not been submitted in part or full for the award of any other degree at SEU or any other university. Date: – ______________________ Place: – ______________________ (Signature) (Full Name of the Candidate) Acknowledgement (Optional) The acknowledgement for thesis is the section where you thank all people, institutions, and companies that helped you complete the project successfully. It is similar to a dedication, except for the fact that it is formal. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 General Introduction 1.2 Research Questions 1.3 Research Objectives 1.4 Significance of the Study 1.4.1 Managerial Relevance 1.4.2 Scientific Implications Chapter 2. Literature Review 2.1 Heading 1 2.1.1 Sub Heading 1 2.1.2 Sub Heading 2 2.2 Heading 2 2.2.1 Sub Heading 1 2.2.2 Sub Heading 2 2.2.2.1 Sub-Sub Heading 1 2.3 Heading 3 2.3.1 Sub Heading 1 2.6 Hypotheses Chapter 3. Methodology 3.1 Research Approach 3.2 Research Design Chapter 4. Analysis and Results 4.1.1. Sub Heading 1 4.1.2 Sub Heading 2 4.2 Heading 1 Chapter 5. Discussion and Conclusion 5.1 Discussion 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Managerial Relevance 5.4 Scientific Implications 5.4 Limitations and Scope for Future Research References Appendices Bibliography Page No. (from-to) Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. Page No. LIST OF TABLES Table (2.2.1.1) Title of Table Here ………………………………..……… Page No. Table (3.2) Table (4.1) Table (4.2) Title of Table Here …………………………………… Title of Table Here ……………………………………… Title of Table Here ……………………………………… Page No. Page No. Page No. LIST OF FIGURES Figure (4.2.1) Title of Figure Here……………………………… Page No. Figure ( ) Title of Figure Here……………………………… Page No. Figure ( ) Title of Figure Here……………………………… Page No. Figure ( ) Title of Figure Here……………………………… Page No. Figure ( ) Title of Figure Here……………………………… Page No. Abstract Background: – Summarize the latest knowledge on the issue by presenting a statistic, or a trend and explain why your topic is important to study. What is need or rationale of choosing your field of research? Purpose:-What did you want to find out? Present here the statements of your research questions. What was your research focused on? Research Design and Methodology: – How did you go about finding it? Which research design you chose and why? What methodology did you use to address the research problem? Provide crisp description of how and when outcomes were measured, including any questionnaire/instruments used, when and how the data was collected, and which statistical methods were used to analyze data and why. Findings: – What did you find? What data or outcomes did you observe? What trend or relation between the variables you established. Practical Implications: – Briefly describe how your research findings can be used for policy, practice, or theory building in your field. Nevertheless, you must state how your findings can be important for managers and other practitioners in the industry/corporate world. Originality/Value – What new or novel knowledge your research contributed to the scholarly or practitioner world. Limitations and Future Research Directions: -What were the main limitations or constraints that affected your study? Whether these limitations are expected or not, and whether they are due to research design or due to methodology or of any stage of your study. Example; there can be issues with sample size and selection, time constraints or limitations can arise due to absence of previous studies in the field etc. Further, you must state here the scope for future research in your studied topic. Based on the results of your study, you may state the impact that your research outcome might have on future research or policy decision or the relevant field of interest of your study. Help the researchers by describing how your findings can be further advanced. CHAPTER 1 Page |1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. General Introduction We, human beings, are continuously evolving as indispensable thinking creatures of the universe. The man has come a very long way and has rightly made great strides in almost every conceivable field of achievement. Scientific breakthroughs and technological advancements have enhanced our confidence in understanding or even conquering the nature at large. The man is regarded to be in the midst of best of times, the world have ever witnessed. Some fifty years back, no one could have imagined the level of the technological feat or the extent of global integration of countries which we are experiencing now. Considering the increasing share of emerging economies in the global growth, there have been substantial improvements in enriching the lives of millions of people around the globe. 1.2. Research Questions The research questions is one of the most important parts of your research project, thesis or dissertation. It’s important to spend some time assessing and refining your question before you get started. The exact form of your question will depend on the length of your project, the type of research, the topic, and the research problem. But all research questions should be focused, specific, appropriately complex, and relevant to a social or scholarly issue. The research questions for this study are: 1) What are the skills & resources required for the success of social enterprises & what are those skills where the enterprise can invest in? 2) What are the input factors for implementing the social enterprise evaluation process? 1.3. Research Objectives Formulating research objectives in an appropriate manner is one of the most important aspects of your thesis. This is because research aim and objectives determine the scope, depth and the overall direction of the research. Research question is the central question of the study that has to be answered on the basis of research findings. The objectives of a sample thesis are given under: Hence, the research, “Title of your research’’ has been formulated with the following primary objective: 1) To get a deeper understanding of the critical success factors of social enterprises operating in different social settings in India in terms of their influence in social entrepreneurship success. Page |2 Depending upon the nature of your study, you can divide the main objective into sub-objectives also. However, this is optional. You can have only main objective or you can divide it into the required number of sub-objectives depending upon the nature of your study. For example, the above mentioned main objective can be divided into following sub-objectives. Thus, in accordance with the above-mentioned primary objective, the study was acknowledged with the set of following set of sub-objectives in order to conduct the research in a more comprehensive way: ✓ To determine the importance and criticality of individual-level factors of leadership, entrepreneurship orientation, networking, business planning skills and their constituent attributes in social enterprise success. ✓ To determine the importance and criticality of organizational-level factors of innovative financing, triple bottom line planning, social enterprise marketing, community engagement, organizational culture, social impact evaluation, frugal innovation, human capital and their constituent attributes in social enterprise success. ✓ To determine the importance and criticality of institutional-level factors of Government support and its constituent attributes in social enterprise success. 1.4. Significance of the Study It provides details to the reader on how the study will contribute such as what the study will contribute and who will benefit from it. It also includes an explanation of the work’s importance as well as its potential benefits. For example the above mentioned example, the significance can be written in the following way The research makes important contributions to existing literature on the critical factors determining the success of social enterprises from both managerial and academic point of view: 1.4.1. Managerial Relevance The findings of this thesis are of great concern from the managerial point of view as it identifies and analyses the various factors that have a critical role in determining the success of social enterprises. It is also holding immense importance with respect to the social entrepreneurship practitioners, as they can take the strategic decision of the enterprises based upon the knowledge of these factors. 1.4.2. Scientific Relevance Page |3 Social entrepreneurship is still considered to be in its budding phase and thus lacks a consolidated foundation and conceptual clarity. The field is having fragmented literature and there is the lack of consensus regarding the framework and theory of social entrepreneurship. While social entrepreneurship remains an underdeveloped field of thought and knowledge, the theories concerning the creation, management, and performance of social enterprises are yet to be crafted. The literature available on the social enterprises is very scant and nothing has been contributed in the way of developing a coherent picture of critical success factors in these enterprises. Page |4 CHAPTER 2 Page |5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2. In this chapter all the literature available on the different approaches to the concept of your research is explicitly reviewed. Here you can write the outline or plan of your review like in how many sections and what you are discussing in each section. 2.1. Sample Main Heading Social entrepreneurship in common parlance refers to entrepreneurial activity with an embedded social purpose. Although, entrepreneurial activities with a social concern can be traced back in the history but the social entrepreneurship as an innovative model for social problem solving has recently emerged (Robinson et al., 2009; Mair & Marti, 2006; Peredo & McLean, 2006; Dees et al., 2002; Chell, 2007). Thus, social entrepreneurship mainly stands for endeavors which primarily focus over social value creation and thus social mission remains central to every social entrepreneurship activity. The social entrepreneurship has become a global phenomenon, impacting societies by catalyzing social transformations for societal wellbeing. The phenomenon mainly addresses the basic needs of human society which were neglected in the race for mainstream development. As such, the phenomenon can occur in any society and often such local social entrepreneurship initiatives have the potential for scale up and replication at the global level. E-g: Microfinance of Bangladesh. 2.1.1. Sub Heading Sample You can put any sub heading as per the nature of your study. For-example, for the sample study which was mentioned in chapter 1, the subheading is discussed as follows. According to Margolis & Walsh, (2003) ‘‘the world cries out for repair and social entrepreneurs are called upon to play a central role in fighting against deep-seated problems of human misery’’. Consequently, social entrepreneurship as a phenomenon is eliciting profound interest among the elites as well. Successful business men who have earned substantially in the past are now dedicating significant resources to support social entrepreneurship. For instance, the world’s largest search engine, ‘‘Google’’ has started to award social entrepreneurs (globalimpactchallenge.withgoogle.com), Jeff Skoll (co-founder of e-bay) has donated 4.4 million pounds for establishing a research Centre for social entrepreneurship (www.skollfoundation.org); Jeff Bezos (founder of Amazon), recently announced a one million Page |6 US dollar award for innovative approaches and breakthrough solutions to effectively improve communities or the world at large (www.amazon.com). 2.2. Sample Main Heading 2 As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002). 2.2.1. The Sub Heading The social entrepreneurs are seen to lead some ‘unique endeavors’ through the establishment of some social purpose organizations. Although, entrepreneurs in general do launch or operate an organization but it is not assumed to be a necessity (Peredo, 2003). Likewise, all businesses and start-ups are entrepreneurial in nature (Carland, et al., 1984), but there are good numbers of reasons to well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002). 2.2.1.1. The Sub Sub Heading The social entrepreneurs are seen to lead some ‘unique endeavors’ through the establishment of some social purpose organizations. Although, entrepreneurs in general do launch or operate an organization but it is not assumed to be a necessity (Peredo, 2003). Table (2.2.1.1): Title of Table (Sample Table) Page |7 2.3. Sample Main Heading 3 As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002). 2.4. Hypothesis Write here the hypothesis of your study. It can be only one or it can be even more than one as per your choice and nature of study. For example, for the sample example provided in chapter one, the hypothesis can be like follows. For the purpose of achieving the objectives of the study, few hypotheses were presumed. These were formed on the basis of previous and current studies on the topic of critical success factors of social enterprises; the hypotheses are described as follows: Hypothesis -1 H1a: The possession of strong business planning skills in key individuals of social enterprises is significantly associated with the success of social enterprises. Hypothesis -2 H2a: Having a strong entrepreneurship orientation in social entrepreneurs is significantly associated with the success of social enterprises. Page |8 CHAPTER 3 Page |9 THE METHODOLOGY 3. In this chapter, the research process of your thesis is to be well-defined and described sequentially. Starting with (1) research preparation, research approach; process of the survey, concerning research design, participants/respondents, sampling procedure and survey design, sample plan, research instrument, method of analysis and the limitations are discussed in detail. 3.1. Research Approach Research approach is a plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation. It is therefore, based on the nature of the research problem being addressed. The researcher’s choice of a particular research approach is governed by the nature of the research problems he/she wants to solve (Yin 1994; Merriam 1998). 3.2. Research Design Research design represents the overall functional plan or blueprint (Babbie & Mouton, 2008) for the research project. Whereas research methodology refers to the standard set of tools, techniques, and approaches used for the purpose of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by the researcher, the research design is the purposeful way in which such methods are linked together to address the research questions or reach conclusions. Tempering an appropriate research design is critical for the attainment of specified goals or objectives outlined for the research project. Therefore, the research design is ought to be trustworthy and reliable while being scientifically grounded (Cooper & Schindler, 2006; Churchill & Iacobucci, 2002). The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. P a g e | 10 CHAPTER 4 P a g e | 11 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 4. This chapter analyses and interprets the data collected. The chapter discusses the results of the study. You can divide the chapter into the desired number of sections and sub-sections. Analysis is still a method or a tool being used to break down your findings. 4.1. Put Sample Main Heading Here you can write the first part of your results and analysis section. For example, you can put here the demographic data analysis etc. You can divide it into as many number of sub-sections as required. 4.2. Put Sample Main Heading Here you can write the second part of your results and analysis section. For example, you can put here main data analysis with the corresponding results etc. You can divide it into as many number of sub-sections as required. Water & Sanitation 10% Agriculture 8% Others 0% Education 12% Health 16% Financial Inclusion 7% Health Education Energy Environment Energy 22% Environment 11% Financial Inclusion Agriculture Water & Sanitation Others Livelihood Promotion 14% Figure (4.2.1): Response Summary as per the Type of Social Enterprises’ Legal Structure (Replace or Delete as required) P a g e | 12 CHAPTER 5 P a g e | 13 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5. This chapter contains an extensive coverage for discussion, interpretation and validation of the survey results. Further, the chapter delineates the discussions on the part of study limitations and prospectus for future research, and leads to a broad conclusion at the end of the chapter. 5.1. Discussion The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader’s understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research level. 5.2. Conclusion The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of your points or a re-statement of your research problem but a synthesis of key points. 5.3. Managerial Relevance Write here an account of the managerial relevance of your study. Just to revise the one mentioned in chapter 1 in light of the findings of the study. 5.4. Scientific Implications Write here an account of the scientific implications of your study. Just to revise the one mentioned in chapter 1 in light of the findings of the study. 5.5. Limitations and Scope for Future Research Every study has limitations. Study limitations can exist due to constraints on research design or methodology, and these factors may impact the findings of your study. However, many researchers are reluctant to discuss the limitations of their study in their papers, feeling that bringing up limitations may undermine its research value in the eyes of readers and reviewers. You may choose to conclude the section by making suggestions for further research. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can P a g e | 14 address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask…”] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research. P a g e | 15 References P a g e | 16 1) Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (2005). Entrepreneurship, innovation and technological change. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 1(4), 1–65. 2) Adams, C. (2015). Understanding integrated reporting: The concise guide to integrated thinking and the future of corporate reporting. Do Sustainability. 3) Adler, P., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review 27(1) 17-40. 4) P a g e | 17 SAMPLE ANNEXURE As an expert reviewer to the Questionnaire on the Critical Success Factors in Indian Social Enterprises, it would be highly appreciated if you could also answer the following diagnostic questions related to the questionnaire. Please select the option that is most appropriate. Please put a tick mark against your choice in appropriate box as per the following scale 1=To no degree 2=To a less degree 3= To a fair degree 4=To a high degree 5= Totally Part-I Question/Statement 1 2 3 4 5 1. To what degree did you comprehend the questions? 2. To what degree did you understand the aim and objectives of the Questionnaire? 3. To what degree did you feel that the Questionnaire was comprehensive in its coverage of possible critical success factors? 4. To what degree did you feel that the Questions were logically structured in the questionnaire? Part-II 1. How long did it take to complete the questionnaire? Please tick (✓) against your choice 0-10 min. 10-20 min 20-30 min >30 min 2. Did you find the instructions provided to complete the questionnaire clear and simple? Please tick (✓) against your choice Yes No 3. Your other observations/comments about the questionnaire. Please elaborate Use extra sheet attached (if necessary) – – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – – – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – – – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – – – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – – – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – — – – – – End – thank you very much for your participation! P a g e | 18 SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL SCIENCES Postgraduate Thesis Manual (For Students and Supervisors) 2020 [[email protected] Saudi Electronic University] 1. Plagiarism Policy Regarding Plagiarism, please note the following: o Student shall submit the report online after Supervisor’s approval. o Supervisor will check the work for possible plagiarism. o If the report is acceptable the Anti-plagiarism report shall be generated, which would be verified and approved that the plagiarism index 25%, the supervisor is requested to submit the work to the college research committee for review. o If the college research committee deemed the work to be extensively plagiarized and violates the University’s ethical rules and regulations, the committee may recommend the termination of the project and fail the student in the course. No other chance will be given to the students who are found to be plagiarizing. 2. Formatting of the Project Report Note: The approved thesis template contains all the settings as per the following guidelines. You need to simply place your text without changing the format. However for your reference, the same guidelines are discussed below: a. Length, Spacing and Font Size The Research Project will be ideally between 60 to 80 pages; Times New Roman 1.5 line spacing and a standard font size of 12 point size. It should be used for the text and front matter materials except for the title page, chapter headings and tables where different line spacing and fonts may be used. The print quality should be dark and clean. b. Margins The margins throughout the report or manuscript should be at least 25mm or 1 inch on the right, top and bottom. The left hand margin must be set to 1.2 inches to allow for binding. See template also. c. Numbers and Percentages Numbers in texts should be written in “Arabic numbers”. For instance, chapter 1, chapter 3 table 2.1 or figure 4.1. d. Version of English The department recommends the use of US English language. If the candidate is using a spellcheck facility he/she should ensure that it is set to “US English”. This is very important because a number of words are spelt quite differently in US English. e. Research Project/Thesis Contents Students are expected to compile their proposals to follow the format shown below: Preliminary pages:  Title page Required  Declaration Certificate  Acknowledgement (Optional)  Table of contents  List of tables  List of figures Required  Abstract The text  Chapter One: Introduction  Chapter Two: Literature review  Chapter Three: Methodology  Chapter Four: Analysis and Results  Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion  References  Bibliography  Appendices The discussion on what to include within each heading, section and sub-section along with an example is mentioned in the approved thesis template. Further, you can consult your supervisor for any clarification on formatting of your project. 3. Evaluation The Project will be graded through a comprehensive assessment rubric. To learn about the criteria of evaluation, you can review the rubric at annexure- 1. Therefore, the project will be evaluated on the basis of quality of project work and its presentation given by the student in front of a committee consisting of two members between specified dates. 1) Project Supervisor 2) Supervisors’ Coordinator RESEARCH PROJECT PROPOSAL On IMPACT OF USING TELEGRAM ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN THE SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY By [Your Full Name Here] Enrolment No. xxxxxxx [Insert Degree Name] [Insert Department Name] [Insert Name of College] [Insert Course Code: xxxxx] [Insert Branch Name] Date of Submission: DD MM 20YY Supervisor Name: Dr. Xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx Saudi Electronic University 1. Background The onset of COVID-19 resulted in widespread disruption of the education sector as governments sought to contain and prevent the spread of the virus. The implementation of social distancing and emergency lockdown led to the suspension of campus-based education worldwide (Iqbal et al., 2020). These unforeseen circumstances have prompted learning institutions to devise new approaches to delivering high-quality education to learners. As a result, learning has shifted from the traditional face-to-face style to incorporating online teaching. The advent of new technology and the emergence of new smartphones and devices has made the use of technology among students inevitable (Momani, 2020). The use of mobile technologies to facilitate teaching in colleges and universities has been on the rise as more institutions embrace the transition to digital learning. Digital devices have become an integral part of mobile-assisted learning with the primary motive of achieving flexibility in teaching, learning, and interaction between instructors and students. Nowadays, teachers and instructors are using various technology-based software and applications to continue educating students. Instant messaging applications such as Telegram are used alongside web-based software to streamline education. Over time, Telegram has gained popularity as a resourceful educational platform that can be used by students and instructors to facilitate learning. Telegram is a free cloud-based instant messaging application that can be installed on either a smartphone or a personal computer. With over 500 million monthly active users, Telegram is among the top ten most downloaded apps for fast, reliable, secure communication (Telegram, 2022). The application facilitates the sharing of files of multiple formats ranging from books, videos, Word documents, PDF files, pictorial notes, voice notes, and PowerPoint presentations. Besides permitting the sharing of educational materials, Telegram allows users to create groups and channels that can accommodate up to 200,000 members. As a champion of blended learning, Saudi Electronic University (SEU) is committed to merging online learning with face-to-face instruction in a bid to stay up to date with the international trend. More instructors and students are exploring the use of Telegram as an elearning tool (Prokopyev et al., 2021). Previous studies have examined the use of instant messaging applications in learning. However, there is a paucity of research on the impact of using Telegram on the achievement of post-graduate students. The current study seeks to address the research gap. SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 1 2. Statement of the problem Telegram offers a relatively new platform for advancing teaching and learning. As colleges and universities strive to expand their online teaching programs, Telegram has emerged as a resourceful e-learning tool that can be used by teachers and students to streamline educational practices. Institutions of higher learning are exploring more effective ways of using Telegram to enhance online learning. The increased reliance on virtual learning during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the need to examine the impact use of Telegram can have on students’ performance and achievement. The educational paradigm shift caused by the introduction of new teaching norms and practices necessitates the need to explore the potentials and restrictions of using instant messaging application such as Telegram on student achievement. Previous studies have explored the role of social media and instant messaging platforms in streamlining and supplementing educational practices. However, there is a paucity of research and evidence-based findings regarding the impact of using an instant messaging application such as Telegram on the academic achievement of learners. Most of the existing studies recommend the use of Telegram as an effective e-learning tool but there are some with a different perception towards the use of the instant messaging application in teaching and learning (Prokopyev et al., 2021). As a learning institution committed to implementing blended and mobile-assisted learning, the Saudi Electronic University (SEU) would greatly benefit from the findings of a study examining the impact of using Telegram on the academic achievement of their post-graduate students. The current study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge regarding the advantages and drawbacks of using instant messaging applications in learning and teaching. 3. Literature Review 3.1 Advancement in Mobile Technology The advent of technology has led to a social media revolution where smartphones and other devices used in mobile communication have become an integral part of everyone’s life (Momani, 2020). According to Statista.com (2022), it is estimated that 6.4 billion people own smartphones worldwide. A survey conducted by Pew Research Center revealed that roughly 97% of Americans own a cell phone whereas 85% own a smartphone (Pew Research Center, 2021). The figure translates to a 35% increase in smartphone ownership according to a previous survey conducted in 2011. In the current digital era, everyone is striving to fit in a globalized world. Advancement SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 2 in mobile technology provides people of all ages with various platforms to communicate and interact with each other. As a result, this has led to the proliferation of social media and instant messaging platforms to match the latest advancements in technology. According to Momani (2020), the younger generation is fond of spending most of their time on social media sites and instant messaging apps communicating with friends or posting interactive content. The fear of missing out has led to a gradual increase in users signing up for various social media and messaging applications. The current generation of students is well-versed with the digital skills needed to maneuver the tech-savvy world (Momani, 2020). 3.2 The COVID-19 pandemic and its Impact on Education The COVID-19 pandemic led to global disruption of education systems as governments abruptly closed schools, colleges, and universities to curb the spread of the virus (Iqbal et al., 2020). The pandemic placed policymakers in a dilemma between closing educational institutions to implement social distancing guidelines and keeping them open to allow learners to continue attending physical classes (Burgess & Sievertsen, 2020). Most governments resolved to temporarily close learning institutions. Donnelly et al. (2021) estimate that roughly 45 nations in Europe and the Central Asia region closed educational institutions at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The closure affected approximately 185 million learners. Learning institutions in Middle East countries such as Saudi Arabia were also forced to close to facilitate the imposition of COVID-19 regulation guidelines on physical distancing and isolation (Alshaikh et al., 2021). Closure of schools necessitated the need for remote teaching and learning, especially for colleges and universities. 3.3 Virtual Learning According to Alshaikh et al. (2021), the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education (MOE) formulated a temporary emergency policy at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic requiring learning institutions to embrace virtual learning to minimize disruption of the education process. The MOE funded and supervised the deployment of virtual classrooms through various online education platforms. Colleges and universities explored e-learning systems such as the Blackboard and e-learning platforms such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams, Google Classrooms, WebEx, Adobe Connect, and Skype (Iqbal et al., 2020). A survey examining the technical tools used in distance learning environments revealed that 71% of the students used WhatsApp and 43% used Telegram SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 3 to interact with instructors and communicate with classmates during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic (Alshaikh et al., 2021). The study also revealed that 57% of the participants acknowledged the efficacy of the Blackboard system in meeting their educational needs for distance learning. Some of the other tools used for communication and during classroom presentations included Zoom (49%), Google Meet (30%), MS Team, and Skype (25%) (Alshaikh et al., 2021). 3.4 Use of Social Media Platforms and Instant Messaging Applications in Educational Practices The use of social media and messaging applications in learning institutions is attributable to the need to reduce reliance on the traditional face-to-face approach to learning and teaching. The advancement in technology has necessitated the adoption of new educational norms and technologies. COVID-19 has also forced schools, colleges, and universities to explore the social media and instant messaging platforms that can be incorporated in learning to prevent disruption of the education process. The use of smartphone applications and instant messaging apps for education practice has gained traction and is making tremendous progress. Nowadays, instructors are using technology-based platforms such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams, Google Classrooms, WebEx, Adobe Connect, and Skype (Iqbal et al., 2020). Some of the most common smartphone applications integrated into education include WhatsApp, LinkedIn, YouTube, Facebook, and Messenger. In addition to these smartphone applications, messaging apps such as Telegram have also been instrumental in streamlining education by addressing the gaps and shortcomings of traditional face-to-face learning (Momani, 2020). According to Rahim & Ali (2021), social media and messaging apps can either promote or demotivate educational practice. In a bid to examine the effect of social platforms on academic performance, Rahim & Ali (2021) explore the use of Facebook, WhatsApp, and Telegram in the learning environment. Facebook provides access to vital information, facilitates faster communication, enhances the interaction between instructors and learners, and has demonstrated promising results in improving academic performance among students (Rahim & Ali, 2021). The study also revealed that supplementing the face-to-face classroom with WhatsApp group discussions is crucial in enhancing students’ academic performance by allowing learners to share academic information and other valuable materials amongst themselves. In addition, Rahim & Ali (2021) found that Telegram was effective in enhancing the learning interaction between teachers and students, especially EFL learners. Even though the study demonstrated the benefits of using SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 4 social media and messaging apps in the learning environment, the researchers pointed to the challenges associated with their continued use and reliance. Mahdiuon et al. (2019) examined the impact of integrating social media into education on academic performance and engagement in institutions of higher learning. The study focused on the incorporation of Telegram on academic interactions and achievement among learners from two Iranian universities. The study applied the structural model equation to formulate and test the hypothesis. The sample population was made up of 409 university students widespread between two institutions of higher learning, one in the South and the other in the Northwest. The findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between the use of Telegram in educational practice and enhanced student engagement. The study also showed that the adoption of Telegram in learning institutions has an indirect impact on students’ engagement and academic achievement. 3.5 Use of Telegram in Teaching and Learning Recently, the use of Telegram as a resourceful educational platform has gained popularity (Iqbal et al., 2020). Telegram is a simple, super-fast, secure, and free messaging app that can be used on multiple devices simultaneously due to the seamless syncing of messages. Statistical data reveals that the instant messaging app has roughly 500 million monthly active users and is among the top ten most downloaded apps in Google Play Store and Apple App Store (Telegram, 2022). Telegram allows users to send messages, share photos, videos, and various file formats with colleagues. Notably, Telegram users can create groups and channels that can accommodate up to 200,000 members or participants. The large outreach makes the application effective in broadcasting to large or unlimited audiences. Besides communication, the Telegram application has demonstrated widespread use in the education sector. Even though Telegram was launched in 2013, it is a relatively new application in the learning environment (Iqbal et al., 2020). Numerous studies have recommended the use of the Telephone in advancing academic excellence. The use of Telegram has been incorporated into the modern learning environment to supplement the traditional face-to-face approach of teaching and learning (Aladsani, 2021). 3.6 Impact of using Telegram on Academic Performance and Achievement Iqbal et al. (2020) conducted an exploratory study to examine the potential benefits and drawbacks of incorporating the use of Telegram in the education of undergraduate medical students at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted between March and SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 5 May 2020 and involved 203 participants. All the respondents were undergraduate medical students selected via purposive sampling. The researchers used seven open-ended questions to gather data from the participants. The results revealed that most students reported the ease of accessing educational resources, ability to add many members, and capacity to share multiple file formats and sizes as the potential benefits of using Telegram in education (Iqbal et al., 2020). The study also showed that Telegram plays a central role in helping students engage in collaborative learning, enhance their security, maintain their safety and wellbeing. In addition, the study also highlighted the complex application interface, information overload, distraction, and time wastage as some of the drawbacks associated with the use of Telegram in learning. Conclusively, the study revealed that Telegram is effective in advancing online and mobile-assisted learning especially during pandemics and emergency crises. Momani (2020) examines the efficacy of Telegram Messenger in enhancing the reading skills of EFL students at the Ajloun University College in Jordan. The sample population was made up of second-year students enrolled for the reading skills course and in their first semester during the academic year 2019 to 2020. The sample population was divided into a control and experimental group of 35 students each. Besides the traditional face-to-face classes, students in the experimental group were involved in online sessions and discussions organized through Telegram. Data on the student’s reading skills were collected before and after the teaching sessions. The findings of the study revealed that Telegram is effective in enhancing the reading skills of EFL students (Momani, 2020). The study found that Telegram can facilitate the creation of a studentcentered learning environment where audio and visuals can be used to explain a given topic. The research also showed that one of the benefits of using Telegram in teaching and learning is motivating learners to develop independence when searching for knowledge and information. One of the indicators of academic achievement is effective educational interactions between instructors and students. Aladsani (2021) conducted a qualitative study to examine the use and perception of Telegram to enhance educational interactions among university students. The study relied on thematic analysis of data collected from the Telegram posts of 77 female university students enrolled for a mandatory computer and society course at King Faisal University (KFU) in Saudi Arabia. All students were taking the 14-week course but from three separate classes to increase diversity. Besides analyzing the content of the Telegram posts the students made, the researchers also requested the participants to write reflection papers on their attitude and SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 6 perception towards the use of Telegram in the course. The study revealed that Telegram is an effective e-learning tool for enhancing educational interactions between teachers and students. The research study showed that Telegram can be used to make announcements, share reminders, initiate lecture discussions, motivate shy students, and download educational materials (Aladsani, 2021). Numerous studies have examined the impact of using Telegram to improve the reading and writing skills among learners studying English as a second or foreign language. One study, with a sample population of 75 participants subdivided into two groups (experimental (38) and control (37)), used a quasi-experimental approach to examine the effect of using Telegram to enhance the writing skills of year-two Bachelor of English students at the World Islamic Sciences and Education University in Jordan (Alodwan, 2021). The findings of the study revealed an improvement in writing ability among students who used Telegram since the app helps learners save and document their writing. Sari (2017) found that instructors can adopt the use of Telegram to maximize the learning process. Instructors can motivate students to read by creating Telegram groups that encourage discussions. A study involving 300 randomly selected participants (200 female and 100 male EFL students) from Tibah University in Saudi Arabia revealed that the majority of the respondents perceived Telegram as an effective e-learning tool for enhancing vocabulary learning (Abu-Ayfah, 2019). In another study, Rahim & Ali (2021) studies the impact of using social media applications such as Facebook, Telegram, and WhatsApp on the academic performance of postgraduate students at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). A sample of 103 males and females was recruited through random sampling to partake in the study. The researchers collected data for the study through structured interviews sent via Google forms. The primary measure of academic performance was the mean scores of GPA. Data analysis was performed through the Independent Samples T-test and the ANOVA test. The results of the study revealed that the largest number of faculty members participating in the research used WhatsApp as their primary platform for social media communication (Rahim & Ali, 2021). However, the study did not report any differences in the academic performance of participants who used various social media platforms. The findings of the study are inconsistent with the findings of previous studies regarding the influence of Telegram on academic performance or achievement and learning interaction between students and faculty members. SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 7 Even though the majority of the past studies are in favor of Telegram as an effective elearning tool, there are some studies with contradicting results. The current study seeks to examine whether the use of Telegram is effective in enhancing academic achievement among post-graduate students from Saudi Electronic University (SEU). 4. Project Objectives The current study seeks to explore the impact of using Telegram on the achievement of postgraduate students in Saudi Electronic University (SEU). The objectives of the study include: a) To determine the percentage of instructors and students using Telegram in the university. b) To determine the most useful features of Telegram. c) To examine how Telegram is used for educational purposes. d) To analyze the perception of instructors and students towards the use of Telegram in teaching and learning. e) To determine the impact of using Telegram on student’s academic performance and achievement f) To determine the efficacy of Telegram as an e-learning tool in an online learning environment. 5. Target Population (Sampling Technique and Sample Size) The target population for the current study includes post-graduate students at the Saudi Electronic University (SEU) who have used Telegram over the past year. The selected students must have at least a Telegram app installed on either their smartphones, tablets, or personal computers. The participants will be drawn from the College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Programs. A random sampling technique will be used to recruit study participants. Random sampling presents an equal chance of selection for all the diverse groups of students in our college. Following Morgan’s schedule for sampling participants, 217 students will be selected to participate in the study (Krejcie & Morgan, 1970). The sample population is convenient and a fair representation of the majority of post-graduate students since university open data reveals that the last recorded number of students for the second semester of 2020 is 512 students (Saudi Electronic University, 2020). The primary motive is to minimize the error margin while increasing the accuracy of mean values. Most postgraduate students in the College of Administrative and SAUDI ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 8 Financial Sciences Programs use Telegram for entertainment, communication, or educational purposes. As a result, the sample population is convenient and a fair representation of the majority of post-graduate students. 6. Data Collection Approach The data collected will include outcome measures for both the proportion of postgraduate students using Telegram and their respective levels of academic achievement. As a result, the study will focus on primary data collection. A questionnaire will be the preferred data collection approach. The questionnaire will include open questions and matrix table statements where participants will be expected to use a Likert scale to determine their level of agreeableness. The participants will gauge their degree of agreement based on the following five points: (1) Strongly disagree; (2) Disagree; (3) Neutral; (4) Agree; (5) Strongly agree. The questionnaire will be posted on an e-survey that each participant will be provided with a link to access. I will distribute a consent form with clear guidelines on the importance of the study to students at our college. The e-survey specifies all the details the participants need to respond to each question. The participants will be provided with one month to fill and submit the questionnaires. 7. Data Analysis The current study will use different types of statistical tools and approaches for data analysis. First, descriptive statistics will be used to summarize the characteristics of the gathered data set using means and standard deviations. The collected data will include the gender, age, academic year, and frequency of using Telegram. The second approach is thematic analysis to have a deeper understanding of the aspects or antecedents associated with academic achievement. The paired sample t-test will be used to compare the use of Telegram with scores of academic achievement among postgraduate students. The confidence level will be set at 95%, whereas the significance level will be set at p

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