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EXAMPLES OF SIMPLE WORK PROCESSES A Fortune 100 healthcare company provided these examples of simple work processes from its Lean improvement program: Reviewing and prioritizing work requests Organizing an improvement-suggestion campaign Making training materials available online for self-service Translating external performance standards into an internal training Identifying what customers want from customer service Routing complaint phone calls to the correct department the first time Preparing the monthly report to upper management Sharing best practices for projects with teams Onboarding new employees Recognizing outstanding performance of an employee Following up to employee-attitude survey results All these projects either used informal processes that were not documented, or used formal processes that were documented but had problems in being performed. Perhaps the best advice for selecting a simple work process for the PIP project is to brainstorm tasks that you do daily or weekly. Frequently occurring activities are likely to be simple work processes. Process Improvement Project Project Name: Preparing Management Report MGT 451 Quality and Project Decision Making for Managers Indiana Wesleyan University Student Name: Steve Pollock Date: August 15, 2013 Table of Contents • • • • • WS1 Project Charter WS2 Process Current State WS3 Process Improvement Opportunities WS4 Process Future State WS5 Sustainability Action Plan 3/29/2022 2 Project Charter • Background – • Problem Statement – • 5 weeks at 4 hours/week for total of 20 hours for Steve Pollock, and 5 hours for interviews with leaders Milestones (What will be completed by each course Workshop, Two through Five?) – – – – • 25 department leaders willing to streamline the process Budget (Estimate cost of your time and other resources to complete the project.) – • Steve Pollock, Barb Smith (Administrative Assistant), and 25 department leaders Current state for how the monthly Management Report is prepared Microsoft Office Suite and SharePoint site Assumptions (What are you counting on to support the project?) – • Prepare the monthly Management Report in less than four hours by October 2013 Resources (People, Process, Technology) – – – • Why does it take so long to prepare the monthly Management Report? Goal Statement – • The monthly Management Report requires collecting information from 25 leaders, editing their comments, and creating a document that is less than 3 pages in length. It takes a lot of time to coordinate the preparation of this report. WS2 Process Current State WS3 Process Improvement Opportunities WS4 Process Future State WS5 Sustainability Action Plan Validation (How will you know if the project worked?) – 3/29/2022 Measure cycle time of improved process compared to goal of 4 hours 3 Current State START END • What is the process name? – Monthly Management Report TASK • Where does the process start and stop? – Collect Information, Issue Report DECISION • What is the process defect or error? – Too much time to prepare report, ~ 10 hours • Draw a process map of how the process currently operates START Email to leaders about data collection N 3/29/2022 Email to review rough draft Reminder email to collect data Data Ready? Y Write rough draft Y OK? Issue report END N 4 Current State Analysis • Show results for using two basic problem-solving tools. – Pareto shows where time is spent in the process, and Fishbone shows major root causes – Email consumes most of the time in process Hours to Complete Current State Steps: Monthly Management Report 14 Manpower 12 Method Expectations not clear Low priority Informal process 10 Why does email take up so much time? 8 6 No template 4 Old technology used Material 2 Machine 0 Email about Reminder Write rough Email draft Issue report data collect email about draft for review data collect 3/29/2022 5 Improvement Opportunities • How can the process be improved? VALUE ADDED – Reduce the use of email • Analyze the current state map and color code Lean opportunities. – Email creates non-valued added activities START Email to leaders about data collection N 3/29/2022 Data Ready? NON VALUED ADDED Email to review rough draft Reminder email to collect data Y VALUE ENABLING Write rough draft OK? Y Issue report END N 6 START Future State END • How can the process be optimized? (Draw a new map.) • What are the major challenges facing the future state? TASK – Expecting disciplined behavior to update SharePoint template • DECISION Why should the future state be adopted? – More efficient way to prepare monthly report START Post template on SharePoint Site to be filled out by leaders N 3/29/2022 Data Ready? Y Write rough draft OK? Y Issue report END N 7 Future State Analysis • Show results for using one new quality-planning tool. – Affinity Diagram selected since it encourages creative thinking – Successful implementation of the new process will require that we address culture, training, metrics, and methods Culture • Expectations not clear • Low priority 3/29/2022 Training • New process explained Metrics • Cycle time performance Methods • No template • Informal process • Old technology used 8 Sustainability Plan • How will you know if the future state works? – Lower cycle time • How will you ensure sustainability? – Document process, train users, and measure performance • What are the key benefits of the future state? – Less wasted time • What did you learn about yourself? – Did not realize that process improvement can be challenging • What did you learn about quality? – Visually showing current state helps viewers better understand the work process • What would you do differently next time? – Include some applicable customer comments about opportunity 3/29/2022 9 Process Improvement Project Project Name: XXX MGT 451 Quality and Project Decision Making for Managers Indiana Wesleyan University Student Name: XXX Date: Mo-Day-Year Table of Contents • • • • • WS1 Project Charter WS2 Process Current State WS3 Process Improvement Opportunities WS4 Process Future State WS5 Sustainability Action Plan 2 Project Charter • Background – XXX • Problem Statement – XXX • Goal Statement – XXX • Resources (People, Process, Technology) – XXX – XXX – XXX • Assumptions (What are you counting on to support the project?) – XXX • Budget (Estimate cost of your time and other resources to complete the project) – XXX • Milestones (What will be completed by each course Workshop, Two through Five?) – – – – • WS2 XXX WS3 XXX WS4 XXX WS5 XXX Validation (How will you know if the project succeeded?) – XXX 3 Current State • What is the process name? – XXX • Where does the process start and stop? START END TASK – XXX, XXX • What is the process defect or error? DECISION – XXX • Draw a process map showing how the process currently operates. 4 Current-State Analysis • Show results using two basic problem-solving tools. – XXX – XXX 3/29/2022 5 Improvement Opportunities • How can the process be improved? VALUE ADDED – XXX • Analyze the current-state map and color-code Lean opportunities. – XXX 3/29/2022 VALUE ENABLING NON-VALUED ADDED 6 Future State • How can the process be optimized? (Draw a new map.) • What are the major challenges facing the future state? START END TASK – XXX • Why should the future state be adopted? DECISION – XXX 3/29/2022 7 Future-State Analysis • Show results using one new quality-planning tool. – XXX – XXX 3/29/2022 8 Sustainability Plan • How will you know if the future state works? – XXX • How will you ensure sustainability? – XXX • What are the key benefits of the future state? – XXX • What did you learn about yourself? – XXX • What did you learn about quality? – XXX • What would you do differently next time? – XXX 3/29/2022 9 WORK PROCESS EXPLANATION AND PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Effective quality management is based on some key concepts about work processes. An organization’s work processes comprise its quality system. A work process is a set of activities that work together to create results for internal and external customers. A work process is how work gets done. All work processes have common features, including suppliers, inputs, activities, outputs, customers, people, methods, materials, tools, and time. An effective work process contributes value, and the focus of continuous improvement is making the work process operate better. An effective organization recognizes that its quality system includes three types of work processes: core work processes, enabling work processes, and detailed work processes. These three work processes are described here: A core work process is the most important way an organization serves its customers. There are usually five to ten core work processes. For example, Amazon (www.amazon.com) has an outstanding logistics core work process for getting products to customers. An enabling work process is the next most important activity of an organization. This work process supports one or more core work processes. There are often more enabling work processes than core processes to account for the infrastructure necessary. Enabling work processes include people, methods, materials, tools, and technology. For example, Amazon’s core work process for logistics requires enabling work processes to provide trained people, define job responsibilities, and provide packaging-handling equipment to name a few. Finally, a detailed work process, sometimes called a sub-process, is the most basic form of work process. This work process supports one or more enabling work processes. There will be many detailed work processes. Detailed work processes contain instructions for specific steps or activities within an enabling work process. For example, Amazon’s core work process for logistics uses an enabling work process for recruiting the right people; a detailed work process would provide information about the criteria for selecting job applicants. The Process Improvement Project (PIP) for the course operates at the detailed work process level. You may find the following example helpful when thinking about your project: The core work process is: The enabling work process is: The detailed work process is: Product design Employee competencies Planning training This detailed work process would have activities to identify the right skills, articulate the appropriate learning methods and tools, and orient the trainers of their responsibilities. Applying this example to the Process Improvement Project (PIP) assignment, consider the following. The way a detailed work process operates at the present time is called its current state. The various improvements for a detailed work process are opportunities. The way a detailed work process will operate as a result of the improvements is called the future state. Your PIP template is organized in this manner just described. All workshops have a Resource section that contains additional examples of simple work processes and a completed PIP report. Refer to these examples as needed. Note: To ensure a more successful Process Improvement Project (PIP), please follow these steps. Get approval from your facilitator for the PIP by the end of Workshop One. The PIP is to be new and original; it is not a report on a previously completed project.