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Lar so n Clif for d F. Gr ay O r e g o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y page vi PROJECT MANAGEMENT: THE MANAGERIAL PROCESS, EIGHTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2021 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2018, 2014, and 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 24 23 22 21 20 19 ISBN 978-1-260-23886-0 (bound edition) MHID 1-260-23886-5 (bound edition) ISBN 978-1-260-73615-1 (loose-leaf edition) MHID 1-260-73615-6 (loose-leaf edition) Portfolio Manager: Noelle Bathurst Product Developer Manager: Michele Janicek Executive Marketing Manager: Harper Christopher Lead Content Project Manager: Sandy Wille Senior Content Project Manager: Angela Norris Senior Buyer: Sandy Ludovissy Design: Egzon Shaqiri Content Licensing Specialist: Beth Cray Cover Image: Gina Pricope/Getty Images Compositor: SPi Global All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Gray, Clifford F., author. | Larson, Erik W., 1952- author. Title: Project management : the managerial process / Erik W. Larson, Clifford F. Gray, Oregon State University. Description: Eighth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2021] | Clifford F. Gray appears as the first named author in earlier editions. | Includes bibliographical references and index. | Summary: “Our motivation in writing this text continues to be to provide a realistic, socio-technical view of project management. In the past, textbooks on project management focused almost exclusively on the tools and processes used to manage projects and not the human dimension”– Provided by publisher. Identifiers: LCCN 2019028390 (print) | LCCN 2019028391 (ebook) | ISBN 9781260238860 (paperback) | ISBN 1260238865 (paperback) | ISBN 9781260242379 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Project management. | Time management. | Risk management. Classification: LCC HD69.P75 G72 2021 (print) | LCC HD69.P75 (ebook) | DDC 658.4/04–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019028390 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019028391 The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGrawHill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites. mheducation.com/highered page vii About the Authors Erik W. Larson ERIK W. LARSON is professor emeritus of project management at the College of Business, Oregon State University. He teaches executive, graduate, and undergraduate courses on project management and leadership. His research and consulting activities focus on project management. He has published numerous articles on matrix management, product development, and project partnering. He has been honored with teaching awards from both the Oregon State University MBA program and the University of Oregon Executive MBA program. He has been a member of the Project Management Institute since 1984. In 1995 he worked as a Fulbright scholar with faculty at the Krakow Academy of Economics on modernizing Polish business education. He was a visiting professor at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, and at Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University in Bad Mergentheim, Germany. He received a B.A. in psychology from Claremont McKenna College and a Ph.D. in management from State University of New York at Buffalo. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and Scrum master. Clifford F. Gray CLIFFORD F. GRAY is professor emeritus of management at the College of Business, Oregon State University. He has personally taught more than 100 executive development seminars and workshops. Cliff has been a member of the Project Management Institute since 1976 and was one of the founders of the Portland, Oregon, chapter. He was a visiting professor at Kasetsart University in Bangkok, Thailand, in 2005. He was the president of Project Management International, Inc. (a training and consulting firm specializing in project management) 1977–2005. He received his B.A. in economics and management from Millikin University, M.B.A. from Indiana University, and doctorate in operations management from the College of Business, University of Oregon. He is a certified Scrum master. page viii “Man’s mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions.” Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. To my family, who have always encircled me with love and encouragement—my parents (Samuel and Charlotte), my wife (Mary), my sons and their wives (Kevin and Dawn, Robert and Sally), and their children (Ryan, Carly, Connor and Lauren). C.F.G. “The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.” Bernard Shaw, Man and Superman To Ann, whose love and support have brought out the best in me. To our girls Mary, Rachel, and Tor-Tor for the joy and pride they give me. And to our grandkids, Mr. B, Livvy, Jasper Jones!, Baby Ya Ya, Juniper Berry, and Callie, whose future depends upon effective project management. Finally, to my muse, Neil—walk on! E.W.L page ix Preface Our motivation in writing this text continues to be to provide a realistic, socio-technical view of project management. In the past, textbooks on project management focused almost exclusively on the tools and processes used to manage projects and not the human dimension. This baffled us, since people, not tools, complete projects! While we firmly believe that mastering tools and processes is essential to successful project management, we also believe that the effectiveness of these tools and methods is shaped and determined by the prevailing culture of the organization and interpersonal dynamics of the people involved. Thus, we try to provide a holistic view that focuses on both the technical and social dimensions and how they interact to determine the fate of projects. Audience This text is written for a wide audience. It covers concepts and skills that are used by managers to propose, plan, secure resources, budget, and lead project teams to successful completions of their projects. The text should prove useful to students and prospective project managers in helping them understand why organizations have developed a formal project management process to gain a competitive advantage. Readers will find the concepts and techniques discussed in enough detail to be immediately useful in newproject situations. Practicing project managers will find the text to be a valuable guide and reference when dealing with typical problems that arise in the course of a project. Managers will also find the text useful in understanding the role of projects in the missions of their organizations. Analysts will find the text useful in helping to explain the data needed for project implementation as well as the operations of inherited or purchased software. Members of the Project Management Institute will find the text is well structured to meet the needs of those wishing to prepare for PMP (Project Management Professional) or CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management) certification exams. The text has in-depth coverage of the most critical topics found in PMI’s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). People at all levels in the organization assigned to work on projects will find the text useful not only in providing them with a rationale for the use of project management processes but also because of the insights they will gain into how to enhance their contributions to project success. Our emphasis is not only on how the management process works but also, and more importantly, on why it works. The concepts, principles, and techniques are universally applicable. That is, the text does not specialize by industry type or project scope. Instead, the text is written for the individual who will be required to manage a variety of projects in a variety of organizational settings. In the case of some small projects, a few of the steps of the techniques can be omitted, but the conceptual framework applies to all organizations in which projects are important to survival. The approach can be used in pure project organizations such as construction, research organizations, and engineering consultancy firms. At the same time, this approach will benefit organizations that carry out many small projects while the daily effort of delivering products or services continues. page x Content In this and other editions we continue to try to resist the forces that engender scope creep and focus only on essential tools and concepts that are being used in the real world. We have been guided by feedback from reviewers, practitioners, teachers, and students. Some changes are minor and incremental, designed to clarify and reduce confusion. Other changes are significant. They represent new developments in the field or better ways of teaching project management principles. Below are major changes to the eighth edition. All material has been reviewed and revised based on the latest edition of Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), Sixth Edition, 2017. Discussion questions for most Snapshots from Practice are now at the end of each chapter. Many of the Snapshots from Practice have been expanded to more fully cover the examples. Agile Project Management is introduced in Chapter 1 and discussed when appropriate in subsequent chapters, with Chapter 15 providing a more complete coverage of the methodology. A new set of exercises have been developed for Chapter 5. New student exercises and cases have been added to chapters. The Snapshot from Practice boxes feature a number of new examples of project management in action. The Instructor’s Manual contains a listing of current YouTube videos that correspond to key concepts and Snapshots from Practice. Overall the text addresses the major questions and challenges the authors have encountered over their 60 combined years of teaching project management and consulting with practicing project managers in domestic and foreign environments. These questions include the following: How should projects be prioritized? What factors contribute to project failure or success? How do project managers orchestrate the complex network of relationships involving vendors, subcontractors, project team members, senior management, functional managers, and customers that affect project success? What project management system can be set up to gain some measure of control? How are projects managed when the customers are not sure what they want? How do project managers work with people from foreign cultures? Project managers must deal with all these concerns to be effective. All of these issues and problems represent linkages to a socio-technical project management perspective. The chapter content of the text has been placed within an overall framework that integrates these topics in a holistic manner. Cases and snapshots are included from the experiences of practicing managers. The future for project managers is exciting. Careers will be built on successfully managing projects. Student Learning Aids Student resources include study outlines, online quizzes, PowerPoint slides, videos, Microsoft Project Video Tutorials, and web links. These can be found in Connect. page xi Acknowledgments We would like to thank Scott Bailey for building the end-of-chapter exercises for Connect; Pinyarat Sirisomboonsuk for revising the PowerPoint slides; Ronny Richardson for updating the Instructor’s Manual; Angelo Serra for updating the Test Bank; and Pinyarat Sirisomboonsuk for providing new Snapshot from Practice questions. Next, it is important to note that the text includes contributions from numerous students, colleagues, friends, and managers gleaned from professional conversations. We want them to know we sincerely appreciate their counsel and suggestions. Almost every exercise, case, and example in the text is drawn from a real-world project. Special thanks to managers who graciously shared their current project as ideas for exercises, subjects for cases, and examples for the text. John A. Drexler, Jim Moran, John Sloan, Pat Taylor, and John Wold, whose work is printed, are gratefully acknowledged. Special gratitude is due Robert Breitbarth of Interact Management, who shared invaluable insights on prioritizing projects. University students and managers deserve special accolades for identifying problems with earlier drafts of the text and exercises. We are indebted to the reviewers of past editions who shared our commitment to elevating the instruction of project management. We thank you for your many thoughtful suggestions and for making our book better. Of course, we accept responsibility for the final version of the text. Paul S. Allen, Rice University Victor Allen, Lawrence Technological University Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah, University of North Carolina–Greensboro Gregory Anderson, Weber State University Mark Angolia, East Carolina University Brian M. Ashford, North Carolina State University Dana Bachman, Colorado Christian University Robin Bagent, College of Southern Idaho Scott Bailey, Troy University Nabil Bedewi, Georgetown University Anandhi Bharadwaj, Emory University James Blair, Washington University–St. Louis Mary Jean Blink, Mount St. Joseph University S. Narayan Bodapati, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville Warren J. Boe, University of Iowa Thomas Calderon, University of Akron Alan Cannon, University of Texas–Arlington Susan Cholette, San Francisco State Denis F. Cioffi, George Washington University Robert Cope, Southeastern Louisiana University Kenneth DaRin, Clarkson University Ron Darnell, Amberton University Burton Dean, San Jose State University Joseph D. DeVoss, DeVry University David Duby, Liberty University Michael Ensby, Clarkson University Charles Franz, University of Missouri, Columbia Larry Frazier, City University of Seattle Raouf Ghattas, DeVry University Edward J. Glantz, Pennsylvania State University Michael Godfrey, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh Jay Goldberg, Marquette University Robert Groff, Westwood College Raffael Guidone, New York City College of Technology Brian Gurney, Montana State University–Billings Owen P. Hall, Pepperdine University Chaodong Han, Towson University Bruce C. Hartman, University of Arizona Mark Huber, University of Georgia Richard Irving, York University Marshall Issen, Clarkson University page xii Robert T. Jones, DePaul University Susan Kendall, Arapahoe Community College George Kenyon, Lamar University Robert Key, University of Phoenix Elias Konwufine, Keiser University Dennis Krumwiede, Idaho State University Rafael Landaeta, Old Dominion University Eldon Larsen, Marshall University Eric T. Larson, Rutgers University Philip Lee, Lone Star College–University Park Charles Lesko, East Carolina University Richard L. Luebbe, Miami University of Ohio Linh Luong, City University of Seattle Steve Machon, DeVry University–Tinley Park Andrew Manikas, University of Louisville William Matthews, William Patterson University Lacey McNeely, Oregon State University Carol Miller, Community College of Denver William Moylan, Lawrence Technological College of Business Ravi Narayanaswamy, University of South Carolina–Aiken Muhammad Obeidat, Southern Polytechnic State University Edward Pascal, University of Ottawa James H. Patterson, Indiana University Steve Peng, California State University–East Bay Nicholas C. Petruzzi, University of Illinois–Urbana/Champaign Abirami Radhakrishnan, Morgan State University Emad Rahim, Bellevue University Tom Robbins, East Carolina University Art Rogers, City University Linda Rose, Westwood College Pauline Schilpzand, Oregon State University Teresa Shaft, University of Oklahoma Russell T. Shaver, Kennesaw State University William R. Sherrard, San Diego State University Erin Sims, DeVry University–Pomona Donald Smith, Texas A&M University Kenneth Solheim, DeVry University–Federal Way Christy Strbiak, U.S. Air Force Academy Peter Sutanto, Prairie View A&M University Jon Tomlinson, University of Northwestern Ohio Oya Tukel, Cleveland State University David A. Vaughan, City University Mahmoud Watad, William Paterson University Fen Wang, Central Washington University Cynthia Wessel, Lindenwood University Larry R. White, Eastern Illinois University Ronald W. Witzel, Keller Graduate School of Management G. Peter Zhang, Georgia State University In addition, we would like to thank our colleagues in the College of Business at Oregon State University for their support and help in completing this project. In particular, we recognize Lacey McNeely, Prem Mathew, and Jeewon Chou for their helpful advice and suggestions. We also wish to thank the many students who helped us at different stages of this project, most notably Neil Young, Saajan Patel, Katherine Knox, Dat Nguyen, and David Dempsey. Mary Gray deserves special credit for editing and working under tight deadlines on earlier editions. Special thanks go to Pinyarat (“Minkster”) Sirisomboonsuk for her help in preparing the last five editions. Finally, we want to extend our thanks to all the people at McGraw-Hill Education for their efforts and support. First, we would like to thank Noelle Bathurst and Sarah Wood, for providing editorial direction, guidance, and management of the book’s development for the eighth edition. And we would also like to thank Sandy Wille, Sandy Ludovissy, Egzon Shaqiri, Beth Cray, and Angela Norris for managing the final production, design, supplement, and media phases of the eighth edition. Erik W. Larson Clifford F. Gray page xiii Guided Tour Established Learning Objectives Learning objectives are listed both at the beginning of each chapter and are called out as marginal elements throughout the narrative in each chapter. End-of-Chapter Content Both static and algorithmic end-of-chapter content, including Review Questions and Exercises, are assignable in Connect. SmartBook The SmartBook has been updated with new highlights and probes for optimal student learning. Snapshots The Snapshot from Practice boxes have been updated to include a number of new examples of project management in action. New discussion questions based on the Snapshots have been added to the end-of-chapter material and are assignable in Connect. New and Updated Cases Included at the end of each chapter are between one and five cases that demonstrate key ideas from the text and help students understand how project management comes into play in the real world. Cases have been reviewed and updated across the eighth edition. Instructor and Student Resources Instructors and students can access all of the supplementary resources for the eighth edition within Connect or directly at www.mhhe.com/larson8e. page xiv Note to Student You will find the content of this text highly practical, relevant, and current. The concepts discussed are relatively simple and intuitive. As you study each chapter we suggest you try to grasp not only how things work but also why things work. You are encouraged to use the text as a handbook as you move through the three levels of competency: I know. I can do. I can adapt to new situations. The field of project management is growing in importance and at an exponential rate. It is nearly impossible to imagine a future management career that does not include management of projects. Resumes of managers will soon be primarily a description of their participation in and contributions to projects. Good luck on your journey through the text and on your future projects. Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions for the Eighth Edition Chapter 1: Modern Project Management New Snapshot: Project Management in Action 2019. New Snapshot: London Calling: Seattle Seahawks versus Oakland Raiders. New case: A Day in the Life—2019. New section on Agile Project Management. Chapter 2: Organization Strategy and Project Selection Chapter text refined and streamlined. New section describing the phase gate model for selecting projects. Chapter 3: Organization: Structure and Culture New section on project management offices (PMOs). New Snapshot: 2018 PMO of the Year. Chapter 4: Defining the Project Consistent with PMBOK 6th edition, the scope checklist includes product scope description, justification/business case, and acceptance criteria. Discussion of scope creep expanded. New case: Celebration of Color 5K. page xv Chapter 5: Estimating Project Times and Costs Snapshot from Practice on reducing estimating errors incorporated in the text. Snapshot from Practice: London 2012 Olympics expanded. A new set of six exercises. Chapter 6: Developing a Project Schedule Chapter 6 retitled Developing a Project Schedule to better reflect content. New case: Ventura Baseball Stadium. Chapter 7: Managing Risk New Snapshot: Terminal Five—London Heathrow Airport. Consistent with PMBOK 6e, “escalate” added to risk and opportunity responses and “budget” reserves replaced by “contingency” reserves. Chapter 8 Scheduling Resources and Costs Two new exercises. New case: Tham Luang Cave Rescue. Chapter 9: Reducing Project Duration Snapshot 9.1: Smartphone Wars updated. New case: Ventura Baseball Stadium (B). Chapter 10: Being an Effective Project Manager Effective Communicator has replaced Skillful Politician as one of the 8 traits associated with being an effective project manager. Research Highlight 10.1: Give and Take expanded. Chapter 11: Managing Project Teams A new review question and exercises added. Chapter 12: Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational Relations Snapshot 12.4: U.S. Department of Defense Value Engineering Awards updated. New exercise added. Chapter 13 Progress and Performance Measurement and Evaluation Expanded discussion of the need for earned value management. New case: Ventura Stadium Status Report. Chapter 14: Project Closure New case: Halo for Heroes II. page xvi Chapter 15: Agile Project Management Chapter revised to include discussions of Extreme programming, Kanban, and hybrid models. New Snapshot: League of Legends. New case: Graham Nash. Chapter 16: International Projects Snapshots from Practice: The Filming of Apocalypse Now and River of Doubt expanded. New case: Mr. Wui Goes to America. MCGRAW-HILL CUSTOMER CARE CONTACT INFORMATION At McGraw-Hill, we understand that getting the most from new technology can be challenging. That’s why our services don’t stop after you purchase our products. You can e-mail our Product Specialists 24 hours a day to get product-training online. Or you can search our knowledge bank of Frequently Asked Questions on our support website. For Customer Support, call 800-331-5094 or visit www.mhhe.com/support. One of our Technical Support Analysts will be able to assist you in a timely fashion. page xvii Brief Contents Preface ix 1. Modern Project Management 2 2. Organization Strategy and Project Selection 3. Organization: Structure and Culture 4. Defining the Project 5. Estimating Project Times and Costs 6. Developing a Project Schedule 7. Managing Risk 8. Scheduling Resources and Costs 9. Reducing Project Duration 28 68 104 134 168 212 258 318 10. Being an Effective Project Manager 11. Managing Project Teams 390 12. Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational Relations 13. Progress and Performance Measurement and Evaluation 474 14. Project Closure 15. Agile Project Management 16. International Projects 532 590 562 354 434 APPENDIX One Solutions to Selected Exercises Two Computer Project Exercises GLOSSARY 626 639 656 ACRONYMS 663 PROJECT MANAGEMENT EQUATIONS 664 CROSS REFERENCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT 665 SOCIO-TECHNICAL APPROACH TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT 666 INDEX 667 page xviii Contents Preface ix Chapter 1 Modern Project Management 1.1 What Is a Project? What a Project Is Not 2 6 7 Program versus Project 7 The Project Life Cycle 9 The Project Manager 10 Being Part of a Project Team 11 1.2 Agile Project Management 12 1.3 Current Drivers of Project Management Compression of the Product Life Cycle Knowledge Explosion 15 15 Triple Bottom Line (Planet, People, Profit) Increased Customer Focus 15 15 Small Projects Represent Big Problems 1.4 15 16 Project Management Today: A Socio-Technical Approach Summary 18 Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection 28 2.1 Why Project Managers Need to Understand Strategy 2.2 The Strategic Management Process: An Overview 30 31 17 Four Activities of the Strategic Management Process 2.3 The Need for a Project Priority System Problem 1: The Implementation Gap Problem 2: Organization Politics 2.4 Project Classification 2.5 Phase Gate Model 2.6 Selection Criteria Financial Criteria 37 38 38 39 41 41 Nonfinancial Criteria 43 Two Multi-Criteria Selection Models 43 Applying a Selection Model Project Classification 46 46 Sources and Solicitation of Project Proposals Ranking Proposals and Selection of Projects 2.8 36 36 Problem 3: Resource Conflicts and Multitasking 2.7 31 Managing the Portfolio System Senior Management Input 47 49 52 52 Governance Team Responsibilities 52 Balancing the Portfolio for Risks and Types of Projects Summary 52 54 Chapter 3 Organization: Structure and Culture 68 3.1 70 Project Management Structures Organizing Projects within the Functional Organization Organizing Projects as Dedicated Teams 73 Organizing Projects within a Matrix Arrangement Different Matrix Forms 70 77 78 3.2 Project Management Office (PMO) 3.3 What Is the Right Project Management Structure? Organization Considerations Project Considerations 83 83 81 83 3.4 Organizational Culture 84 What Is Organizational Culture? 85 Identifying Cultural Characteristics 3.5 Implications of Organizational Culture for Organizing Projects Summary 89 92 Chapter 4 Defining the Project 4.1 87 104 Step 1: Defining the Project Scope Employing a Project Scope Checklist 106 107 4.2 Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities 4.3 Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure Major Groupings in a WBS 113 113 How a WBS Helps the Project Manager A Simple WBS Development 111 113 114 4.4 Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization 4.5 Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System 4.6 Process Breakdown Structure 118 118 121 page xix 4.7 Responsibility Matrices 4.8 Project Communication Plan Summary 122 124 126 Chapter 5 Estimating Project Times and Costs 5.1 134 Factors Influencing the Quality of Estimates Planning Horizon Project Complexity People 136 136 136 Project Structure and Organization 137 136 Padding Estimates 137 Organizational Culture Other Factors 137 137 5.2 Estimating Guidelines for Times, Costs, and Resources 5.3 Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Estimating 5.4 Methods for Estimating Project Times and Costs 139 142 Top-Down Approaches for Estimating Project Times and Costs 142 Bottom-Up Approaches for Estimating Project Times and Costs 146 A Hybrid: Phase Estimating 5.5 Level of Detail 149 5.6 Types of Costs 150 Direct Costs 147 151 Direct Project Overhead Costs 151 General and Administrative (G&A) Overhead Costs 5.7 Refining Estimates 5.8 Creating a Database for Estimating 5.9 Mega Projects: A Special Case 152 154 155 Summary 158 Appendix 5.1: Learning Curves for Estimating Chapter 6 Developing a Project Schedule 164 168 6.1 Developing the Project Network 169 6.2 From Work Package to Network 170 6.3 Constructing a Project Network 172 Terminology 151 172 Basic Rules to Follow in Developing Project Networks 6.4 Activity-on-Node (AON) Fundamentals 6.5 Network Computation Process Forward Pass—Earliest Times 177 176 172 173 138 Backward Pass—Latest Times Determining Slack (or Float) 179 180 6.6 Using the Forward and Backward Pass Information 6.7 Level of Detail for Activities 6.8 Practical Considerations Network Logic Errors Activity Numbering 184 184 184 184 Use of Computers to Develop Networks Calendar Dates 185 185 Multiple Starts and Multiple Projects 6.9 183 185 Extended Network Techniques to Come Closer to Reality Laddering 188 Use of Lags to Reduce Schedule Detail and Project Duration 188 An Example Using Lag Relationships—the Forward and Backward Pass Hammock Activities Summary 193 194 Chapter 7 Managing Risk 212 7.1 Risk Management Process 214 7.2 Step 1: Risk Identification 216 7.3 Step 2: Risk Assessment Probability Analysis 7.4 219 222 Step 3: Risk Response Development Mitigating Risk Avoiding Risk 223 225 Transferring Risk Escalating Risk Retaining Risk 7.5 188 225 225 225 Contingency Planning Technical Risks 227 Schedule Risks 229 226 223 192 Cost Risks 229 Funding Risks 229 7.6 Opportunity Management 7.7 Contingency Funding and Time Buffers Contingency Reserves 231 Management Reserves 232 Time Buffers 230 231 232 7.8 Step 4: Risk Response Control 7.9 Change Control Management 233 234 Summary 237 Appendix 7.1: PERT and PERT Simulation 248 page xx Chapter 8 Scheduling Resources and Costs 258 8.1 Overview of the Resource Scheduling Problem 8.2 Types of Resource Constraints 8.3 Classification of a Scheduling Problem 8.4 Resource Allocation Methods Assumptions 262 263 263 263 Time-Constrained Projects: Smoothing Resource Demand Resource-Constrained Projects 8.5 260 264 265 Computer Demonstration of Resource-Constrained Scheduling 270 The Impacts of Resource-Constrained Scheduling 8.6 Splitting Activities 8.7 Benefits of Scheduling Resources 8.8 Assigning Project Work 8.9 Multiproject Resource Schedules 274 277 278 279 280 8.10 Using the Resource Schedule to Develop a Project Cost Baseline 281 Why a Time-Phased Budget Baseline Is Needed Creating a Time-Phased Budget 282 Summary 287 Appendix 8.1: The Critical-Chain Approach Chapter 9 Reducing Project Duration 281 308 318 9.1 Rationale for Reducing Project Duration 9.2 Options for Accelerating Project Completion Options When Resources Are Not Constrained Options When Resources Are Constrained 9.3 Project Cost-Duration Graph Explanation of Project Costs 9.4 324 327 330 Practical Considerations Crash Times 332 332 333 Linearity Assumption 333 Choice of Activities to Crash Revisited 333 Time Reduction Decisions and Sensitivity 334 What If Cost, Not Time, Is the Issue? Reduce Project Scope 335 336 Have Owner Take on More Responsibility 336 Outsource Project Activities or Even the Entire Project Brainstorm Cost Savings Options Summary 337 Chapter 10 328 328 Using the Project Cost-Duration Graph 9.6 322 Constructing a Project Cost-Duration Graph A Simplified Example 321 327 Determining the Activities to Shorten 9.5 320 336 336 Being an Effective Project Manager 354 10.1 Managing versus Leading a Project 10.2 Engaging Project Stakeholders 10.3 Influence as Exchange Task-Related Currencies 357 361 362 Position-Related Currencies 363 Inspiration-Related Currencies 363 Relationship-Related Currencies Personal-Related Currencies 10.4 363 364 Social Network Building 364 Mapping Stakeholder Dependencies 364 Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) Managing Upward Relations Leading by Example 356 366 367 369 10.5 Ethics and Project Management 10.6 Building Trust: The Key to Exercising Influence 10.7 Qualities of an Effective Project Manager Summary 372 373 375 378 Chapter 11 Managing Project Teams 390 11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model 11.2 Situational Factors Affecting Team Development 11.3 Building High-Performance Project Teams Recruiting Project Members 397 Conducting Project Meetings Establishing Team Norms 401 Establishing a Team Identity Creating a Shared Vision 399 403 404 Managing Project Reward Systems 406 Orchestrating the Decision-Making Process Managing Conflict within the Project 410 408 393 397 395 Rejuvenating the Project Team 413 11.4 Managing Virtual Project Teams 11.5 Project Team Pitfalls Groupthink 419 419 Bureaucratic Bypass Syndrome 419 Team Spirit Becomes Team Infatuation Summary 415 419 421 Chapter 12 Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational Relations 12.1 Outsourcing Project Work 434 436 page xxi 12.2 Request for Proposal (RFP) 440 Selection of Contractor from Bid Proposals 12.3 441 Best Practices in Outsourcing Project Work Well-Defined Requirements and Procedures 442 442 Extensive Training and Team-Building Activities 444 Well-Established Conflict Management Processes in Place Frequent Review and Status Updates Co-location When Needed 447 448 Fair and Incentive-Laden Contracts 449 Long-Term Outsourcing Relationships 12.4 The Art of Negotiating 449 450 1. Separate the People from the Problem 2. Focus on Interests, Not Positions 3. Invent Options for Mutual Gain Dealing with Unreasonable People 451 452 453 4. When Possible, Use Objective Criteria 12.5 445 454 454 A Note on Managing Customer Relations Summary 458 Appendix 12.1: Contract Management 467 455 Chapter 13 Progress and Performance Measurement and Evaluation 13.1 Structure of a Project Monitoring Information System What Data Are Collected? 13.2 476 476 The Project Control Process Step 1: Setting a Baseline Plan 477 477 Step 2: Measuring Progress and Performance Step 3: Comparing Plan against Actual Step 4: Taking Action 13.3 Control Chart 478 478 478 479 Milestone Schedules 13.4 479 Earned Value Management (EVM) The Need for Earned Value Management Percent Complete Rule Methods of Variance Analysis 480 484 485 Developing a Status Report: A Hypothetical Example Assumptions 487 Baseline Development 487 Development of the Status Report 13.6 480 484 What Costs Are Included in Baselines? 13.5 477 477 Monitoring Time Performance Tracking Gantt Chart 476 476 Collecting Data and Analysis Reports and Reporting 474 488 Indexes to Monitor Progress Performance Indexes 492 493 Project Percent Complete Indexes 494 Software for Project Cost/Schedule Systems Additional Earned Value Rules 494 495 13.7 Forecasting Final Project Cost 13.8 Other Control Issues 496 498 Technical Performance Measurement 498 487 Scope Creep 500 Baseline Changes 500 The Costs and Problems of Data Acquisition 502 Summary 503 Appendix 13.1: The Application of Additional Earned Value Rules 522 Appendix 13.2: Obtaining Project Performance Information from MS Project 2010 or 2016 528 Chapter 14 Project Closure 532 14.1 Types of Project Closure 14.2 Wrap-up Closure Activities 14.3 Project Audits 536 539 The Project Audit Process Project Retrospectives 14.4 534 540 543 Project Audits: The Big Picture Level 1: Ad Hoc Project Management 543 546 Level 2: Formal Application of Project Management Level 3: Institutionalization of Project Management 14.5 546 547 Level 4: Management of Project Management System 547 Level 5: Optimization of Project Management System 548 Post-implementation Evaluation Team Evaluation 548 548 Individual, Team Member, and Project Manager Performance Reviews Summary 552 Appendix 14.1: Project Closeout Checklist Chapter 15 Agile Project Management 555 562 15.1 Traditional versus Agile Methods 15.2 Agile PM 15.3 Agile PM in Action: Scrum 566 569 564 550 Roles and Responsibilities Scrum Meetings 570 572 Product and Sprint Backlogs 573 Sprint and Release Burndown Charts 575 page xxii 15.4 Extreme Programming and Kanban Kanban 577 15.5 Applying Agile PM to Large Projects 15.6 Limitations and Concerns 15.7 Hybrid Models Summary 576 578 580 580 581 Chapter 16 International Projects 16.1 590 Environmental Factors Legal/Political Factors Security 593 593 Geography 594 Economic Factors Infrastructure Culture 592 594 596 597 16.2 Project Site Selection 16.3 Cross-Cultural Considerations: A Closer Look Adjustments 599 601 Working in Mexico 602 Working in France 605 Working in Saudi Arabia Working in China 606 608 Working in the United States 609 Summary Comments about Working in Different Cultures Culture Shock 16.4 600 611 611 Selection and Training for International Projects 614 Summary 617 Appendix One: Solutions to Selected Exercises Appendix Two: Computer Project Exercises Glossary 639 656 Acronyms 663 Project Management Equations 664 Cross Reference of Project Management 665 Socio-Technical Approach to Project Management Index 626 667 666 page xxiii Project Management The Managerial Process page 2 CHAPTER ONE 1 Modern Project Management LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter you should be able to: 1-1 Understand why project management (PM) is crucial in today’s world. 1-2 Distinguish a project from routine operations. 1-3 Identify the different stages of a project life cycle. 1-4 Describe how Agile PM is different from traditional PM. 1-5 Understand that managing projects involves balancing the technical and sociocultural dimensions of the project. OUTLINE 1.1 What Is a Project? 1.2 Agile Project Management 1.3 Current Drivers of Project Management 1.4 Project Management Today: A Socio-Technical Approach Summary Text Overview page 3 All of mankind’s greatest accomplishments—from building the great pyramids to discovering a cure for polio to putting a man on the moon—began as a project. LO 1-1 Understand why project management (PM) is crucial in today’s world. This is a good time to be reading a book about project management. Business leaders and experts have recognized that project management is critical to sustainable economic growth. New jobs and competitive advantage are achieved by constant innovation, developing new products and services, and improving both productivity and quality of work. This is the world of project management. Project management provides people with a powerful set of tools that improves their ability to plan, implement, and manage activities to accomplish specific objectives. But project management is more than just a set of tools; it is a results-oriented management style that places a premium on building collaborative relationships among a diverse cast of characters. Exciting opportunities await people skilled in project management. The project approach has long been the style of doing business in the construction industry, U.S. Department of Defense contracts, and Hollywood, as well as big consulting firms. Now project management has page 4 spread to all avenues of work. Today, project teams carry out everything from port expansions to hospital restructuring to upgrading information systems. They are creating next-generation fuelefficient vehicles, developing sustainable sources of energy, and exploring the farthest reaches of outer space. The impact of project management is most profound in high-tech industries, where the new folk heroes are young professionals whose Herculean efforts lead to the constant flow of new hardware and software products. Project management is not limited to the private sector. Project management is also a vehicle for doing good deeds and solving social problems. Endeavors such as providing emergency aid to areas hit by natural disasters, devising a strategy for reducing crime and drug abuse within a city, or organizing a community effort to renovate a public playground would and do benefit from the application of modern project management techniques. Perhaps the best indicator of demand for project management can be seen in the rapid expansion of the Project Management Institute (PMI), a professional organization for project managers. PMI membership has grown from 93,000 in 2002 to more than 565,000 in 2019. See Snapshot from Practice 1.1: The Project Management Institute for information regarding professional certification in project management. It’s nearly impossible to pick up a newspaper or business periodical and not find something about projects. This is no surprise! Approximately $2.5 trillion (about 25 percent of the U.S. gross national product) is spent on projects each year in the United States alone. Other countries are increasingly spending more on projects. Millions of people around the world consider project management the major task in their profession. SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 1.1 The Project Management Institute* The Project Management Institute (PMI) was founded in 1969 as an international society for project managers. Today PMI has members from more than 180 countries and more than 565,000 members. PMI professionals come from virtually every major industry, including aerospace, automotive, business management, construction, engineering, financial services, information technology, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, and telecommunications. PMI provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP)— someone who has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated mastery of the field of project management by passing a comprehensive examination based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), which is in its 6th edition. The number of people earning PMP status has grown dramatically in recent years. In 1996 there were fewer than 3,000 certified Project Management Professionals. By 2019 there were more than 910,000 PMPs. Just as the CPA exam is a standard for accountants, passing the PMP exam may become the standard for project managers. Some companies are requiring that all their project managers be PMP certified. Moreover, many job postings are restricted to PMPs. Job seekers, in general, are finding that being PMP certified is an advantage in the marketplace. PMI added a certification as a Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM). CAPM is designed for project team members and entry-level project managers, as well as qualified undergraduate and graduate students who want a credential to recognize their mastery of the project management body of knowledge. CAPM does not require the extensive project management experience associated with the PMP. In fact, students often qualify for taking the CAPM exam by taking a course on project management. For more details on PMP and CAPM, google PMI to find the current website for the Project Management Institute. This text provides a solid foundation for passing either exam. However, we personally found it necessary to study a good PMP/CAPM exam “prep book” to pass the exam. This is recommended, given the format and nature of the exam. * PMI Today, March 2019, p. 4. page 5 Most of the people who excel at managing projects never have the title of project manager. They include accountants, lawyers, administrators, scientists, contractors, coaches, public health officials, teachers, and community advocates whose success depends upon being able to lead and manage project work. For some, the very nature of their work is project driven. Projects may be cases for lawyers, audits for accountants, events for artists, and renovations for contractors. For others, projects may be a small but critical part of their work. For example, a high school teacher who teaches four classes a day is responsible for coaching a group of students to compete in a national debate competition. A store manager who oversees daily operations is charged with developing an employee retention program. A sales account executive is given the additional assignment of team lead to launch daily deals into a new city. A public health official who manages a clinic is also responsible for organizing a Homeless Youth Connect event. For these and others, project management is not a title but a critical job requirement. It is hard to think of a profession or a career path that would not benefit from being good at managing projects. Not only is project management critical to most careers, but also the skill set is transferable across most businesses and professions. Project management fundamentals are universal. The same project management methodology that is used to develop a new product can be adapted to create new services, organize events, refurbish aging operations, and so forth. In a world where it is estimated that each person is likely to experience three to four career changes, managing projects is a talent worthy of development. The significance of project management can also be seen in the classroom. Twenty years ago major universities offered one or two classes in project management, primarily for engineers. Today most universities page 6 offer multiple sections of project management classes, with the core group of engineers being supplemented by business students majoring in marketing, management information systems (MIS), and finance, as well as students from other disciplines such as oceanography, health sciences, computer sciences, and liberal arts. These students are finding that their exposure to project management is providing them with distinct advantages when it comes time to look for jobs. More and more employers are looking for graduates with project management skills. See Snapshot from Practice 1.2: A Dozen Examples of Projects Given to Recent College Graduates for examples of projects given to recent college graduates. The logical starting point for developing these skills is understanding the uniqueness of a project and of project managers. SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 1.2 A Dozen Examples of Projects Given to Recent College Graduates 1. Business information: Join a project team charged with installing a new data security system. 2. Physical education: Design and develop a new fitness program for senior citizens that combines principles of yoga and aerobics. 3. Marketing: Execute a sales program for a new home air purifier. 4. Industrial engineering: Manage a team to create a value chain report for every aspect of a key product from design to customer delivery. 5. Chemistry: Develop a quality control program for an organization’s drug production facilities. 6. Management: Implement a new store layout design. 7. Pre-med neurology student: Join a project team linking mind mapping to an imbedded prosthetic that will allow blind people to function near normally. 8. Sports communication: Join the athletics staff at Montana State University to promote women’s basketball. 9. Systems engineer: Become a project team member of a project to develop data mining of medical papers and studies related to drug efficacy. 10. Accounting: Work on an audit of a major client. 11. Public health: Research and design a medical marijuana educational program. 12. English: Create a web-based user manual for a new electronics product. John Fedele/Blend Images LLC 1.1 What Is a Project? LO 1-2 Distinguish a project from routine operations. What do the following headlines have in common? Millions Watch World Cup Finals Citywide WiFi System Set to Go Live Hospitals Respond to New Healthcare Reforms Apple’s New iPhone Hits the Market City Receives Stimulus Funds to Expand Light Rail System All of these events are projects. The Project Management Institute provides the following definition of a project: A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. page 7 Like most organizational efforts, the major goal of a project is to satisfy a customer’s need. Beyond this fundamental similarity, the characteristics of a project help differentiate it from other endeavors of the organization. The major characteristics of a project are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. An established objective. A defined lifespan with a beginning and an end. Usually, the involvement of several departments and professionals. Typically, doing something that has never been done before. Specific time, cost, and performance requirements. First, projects have a defined objective—whether it is constructing a 12story apartment complex by January 1 or releasing version 2.0 of a specific software package as quickly as possible. This singular purpose is often lacking in daily organizational life in which workers perform repetitive operations each day. Second, because there is a specified objective, projects have a defined endpoint, which is contrary to the ongoing duties and responsibilities of traditional jobs. Instead of staying in one job, individuals often move from project to project, working with different groups of people. For example, after helping to install a security system, an IT engineer may be assigned to develop a database for a different client. Third, unlike much organizational work that is segmented according to functional specialty, projects typically require the combined efforts of a variety of specialists. Instead of working in separate offices under separate managers, project participants, whether they be engineers, financial analysts, marketing professionals, or quality control specialists, work together under the guidance of a project manager to complete a project. The fourth characteristic of a project is that it is nonroutine and has some unique elements. This is not an either/or issue but a matter of degree. Obviously, accomplishing something that has never been done before, such as building an electric automobile or landing two mechanical rovers on Mars, requires solving previously unsolved problems and using breakthrough technology. On the other hand, even basic construction projects that involve established sets of routines and procedures require some degree of customization that makes them unique. See Snapshot from Practice 1.3: London Calling: Seattle Seahawks versus Oakland Raiders for an unusual change in routine. Finally, specific time, cost, and performance requirements bind projects. Projects are evaluated according to accomplishment, cost, and time spent. These triple constraints impose a higher degree of accountability than typically found in most jobs. These three also highlight one of the primary functions of project management, which is balancing the trade-offs among time, cost, and performance while ultimately satisfying the customer. What a Project Is Not Projects should not be confused with everyday work. A project is not routine, repetitive work! Ordinary daily work typically requires doing the same or similar work over and over, while a project is done only once; a new product or service exists when the project is completed. Examine the list in Table 1.1 that compares routine, repetitive work and projects. Recognizing the difference is important because too often resources can be used up on daily operations, which may not contribute to longer-range organization strategies that require innovative new products. TABLE 1.1 Comparison of Routine Work with Projects Routine, Repetitive Work Taking class notes Projects Writing a term paper Daily entering sales receipts into Setting up a sales kiosk for a professional accounting the accounting ledger meeting Responding to a supply-chain request Developing a supply-chain information system Practicing scales on the piano Writing a new piano piece Routine manufacture of an AppleDesigning an iPod that is approximately 2 × 4 inches, iPod interfaces with PC, and stores 10,000 songs Attaching tags on a manufacturedWire-tag projects for GE and Walmart product Program versus Project In practice the terms project and program cause confusion. They are often used synonymously. A program is a group of related projects designed to accomplish a common goal over an extended period of time. Each page 8 project within a program has a project manager. The major differences lie in scale and time span. SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 1.3 London Calling: Seattle Seahawks versus Oakland Raiders* On October 7, 2018, the National Football League (NFL) Seattle Seahawks walked off the field having played their best game of the season, only to fall short to the undefeated Los Angeles Rams, 33–31. Next on the schedule was an away game with the Oakland Raiders. Instead of heading about 670 miles south to Oakland, California, however, the Seahawks flew nearly 5,000 miles to London, England, eight time zones away, to spread the gospel of the NFL. Sending an NFL team overseas during the season is no easy task. Advanced planning is critical. Players need passports. Accommodations have to be found and transportation arranged. The equipment staff sends supplies months in advance. All total, the Seahawks ended up shipping 21,000 pounds of gear and products, including 1,150 rolls of athletic tape, 2 tons of medical supplies, 350 power adapters, and 500 pairs of shoes! Two of the biggest challenges the “Hawks” faced were jet lag and distractions. Many of the players and staff had never been overseas. London would be a strange, exciting experience. With this in mind, head coach Pete Carroll decided to fly early to London on Wednesday, October 10. This would allow players to better adjust their sleep patterns while providing some free time to explore London. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 10 The Seahawks boarded a chartered jet that included 45 sleeping pods in first class for the veteran players. Coach Carroll and his staff sat in the first row of business class. Rookies and members of the practice squad sat behind them. Regardless of class, everyone got the same menu: beef filet, Cajun chicken, or herb-roasted salmon. Typically, on flights to the east, Sam Ramsden, the team’s director of health and player performance, tells players to stay awake so they will be tired and sleep well when they arrive. For the London trip, though, Ramsden reversed the program: he told players to sleep as much as possible on the flight so when they arrived in London on Thursday afternoon, they would have enough energy to stay up until 9 or 10 p.m. and then get a full night’s rest. “We try to protect their circadian rhythms as much as possible,” Ramsden said. Circadian rhythm (also known as body clock) is a natural, internal system that’s designed to regulate feelings of sleepiness and wakefulness over a 24-hour period. Ramsden’s staff gave each player special sleep kits that included blackout eye masks. Some players took melatonin or Ambien, while others used headphones that played the sounds of wind and rushing water to induce sleep. THURSDAY, OCTOBER 11 The Seahawks landed on Thursday about 1:30 p.m. (5:30 a.m. Seattle time). Buses took them to a golf course resort north of London. At night, the players let off some steam at a Topgolf facility. Here organized into groups of four, they tried to hit golf balls into giant holes to score points. Jeers rang out every time they were wildly off target. FRIDAY, OCTOBER 12 After several hours of meetings and a practice, players were free to explore London. They scattered to the various corners of London. On returning to the resort before the 11:00 p.m. curfew, a few of the players complained about the warm English beer. The Oakland Raiders arrived in London at 1:00 p.m., 53 hours before game time. SATURDAY, OCTOBER 13 Coach Carroll likes to take his players to the stadium the day before a road game so they can visualize conditions ahead of time. At 1:30 p.m., the Seahawks drove to Wembley, where they saw their fully Seahawk-equipped locker room and the field, the most famous soccer pitch in England. The field appeared slick, so the equipment manager had longer screw-in cleats available for the players. The Hawks returned to their resort for their normal pregame evening routine. GAMEDAY, OCTOBER 14 During the course of the game, the TV announcers commented several times that the Raiders seemed sluggish, while the Seahawks were sharp and focused. The Seahawks dominated the game, winning 27–3. David Lee/Shutterstock * Bell, G., “Seahawks Arrive in London. Why Twins Shaquill and Shaquem Griffin Did Not Travel Here Equally,” thenewstribune.com, October 11, 2018. Belson, K., “Four Thousand Miles for the W,” nytimes.com, October 20, 2018; Accessed 10/22/18. page 9 Program management is the process of managing a group of ongoing, interdependent, related projects in a coordinated way to achieve strategic objectives. For example, a pharmaceutical organization could have a program for curing cancer. The cancer program includes and coordinates all cancer projects that continue over an extended time horizon (Gray, 2011). Coordinating all cancer projects under the oversight of a cancer team provides benefits not available from managing them individually. This cancer team also oversees the selection and prioritizing of cancer projects that are included in their special “Cancer” portfolio. Although each project retains its own goals and scope, the project manager and team are also motivated by the higher program goal. Program goals are closely related to broad strategic organization goals. The Project Life Cycle LO 1-3 Identify the different stages of a project life cycle. Another way of illustrating the unique nature of project work is in terms of the project life cycle. The life cycle recognizes that projects have a limited lifespan and that there are predictable changes in level of effort and focus over the life of the project. There are a number of different life-cycle models in project management literature. Many are unique to a specific industry or type of project. For example, a new-software development project may consist of five phases: definition, design, code, integration/test, and maintenance. A generic cycle is depicted in Figure 1.1. FIGURE 1.1 Project Life Cycle The project life cycle typically passes sequentially through four stages: defining, planning, executing, and closing. The starting point begins the moment the project is given the go-ahead. Project effort starts slowly, builds to a peak, and then declines to delivery of the project to the customer. 1. Defining stage. Specifications of the project are defined; project objectives are established; teams are formed; major responsibilities are assigned. 2. Planning stage. The level of effort increases, and plans are developed to determine what the project will entail, when it will be scheduled, whom it will benefit, what quality level should be maintained, and what the budget will be. 3. Executing stage. A major portion of the project work takes place—both physical and mental. The physical product is produced (e.g., a bridge, a report, a software program). Time, cost, and specification measures are used for control. Is the project on schedule, on budget, and meeting specifications? What are the forecasts of each of these measures? What revisions/changes are necessary? 4. Closing stage. Closing includes three activities: delivering the project product to the customer, redeploying project resources, and conducting a post-project review. Delivery of the project might include page 10 customer training and transferring documents. Redeployment usually involves releasing project equipment/materials to other projects and finding new assignments for team members. Post-project reviews include not only assessing performance but also capturing lessons learned. In practice, the project life cycle is used by some project groups to depict the timing of major tasks over the life of the project. For example, the design team might plan a major commitment of resources in the defining stage, while the quality team would expect their major effort to increase in the latter stages of the project life cycle. Because most organizations have a portfolio of projects going on concurrently, each at a different stage of each project’s life cycle, careful planning and management at the organization and project levels are imperative. The Project Manager At first glance project managers perform the same functions as other managers. That is, they plan, schedule, motivate, and control. However, what makes them unique is that they manage temporary, nonrepetitive activities to complete a fixed-life project. Unlike functional managers, who take over existing operations, project managers create a project team and organization where none existed before. They must decide what and how things should be done instead of simply managing set processes. They must meet the challenges of each phase of the project life cycle and even oversee the dissolution of their operation when the project is completed. Project managers must work with a diverse troupe of characters to complete projects. They are typically the direct link to the customer and must manage the tension between customer expectations and what is page 11 feasible and reasonable. Project managers provide direction, coordination, and integration to the project team, which is often made up of part-time participants loyal to their functional departments. They often must work with a cadre of outsiders—vendors, suppliers, and subcontractors—who do not necessarily share their project allegience. Project managers are ultimately responsible for performance (frequently with too little authority). They must ensure that appropriate trade-offs are made among the time, cost, and performance requirements of the project. At the same time, unlike their functional counterparts, project managers often possess only rudimentary technical knowledge to make such decisions. Instead, they must orchestrate the completion of the project by inducing the right people, at the right time, to address the right issues and make the right decisions. While project management is not for the timid, working on projects can be an extremely rewarding experience. Life on projects is rarely boring; each day is different from the last. Since most projects are directed at solving some tangible problem or pursuing some useful opportunity, project managers find their work personally meaningful and satisfying. They enjoy the act of creating something new and innovative. Project managers and team members can feel immense pride in their accomplishment, whether it is a new bridge, a new product, or a needed service. Project managers are often stars in their organization and well compensated. Good project managers are always in demand. Every industry is looking for effective people who can get the right things done on time. See Snapshot from Practice 1.4: Ron Parker for an example of someone who leveraged his ability to manage projects to build a successful career in the glass products industry. Clearly project management is a challenging and exciting profession. This text is intended to provide the necessary knowledge, perspective, and tools to enable students to accept the challenge. Being Part of a Project Team Most people’s first exposure to project management occurs while working as part of a team assigned to complete a specific project. Sometimes this work is full time, but in most cases people work part time on one or more projects. They must learn how to juggle their day-to-day commitments with additional project responsibilities. They may join a team with a long history of working together, in which case roles and norms are firmly established. Alternatively their team may consist of strangers from different departments and organizations. As such, they endure the growing pains of a group evolving into a team. They need to be a positive force in helping the team coalesce into an effective project team. Not only are there people issues, but project members are also expected to use project management tools and concepts. They develop or are given a project charter or scope statement that defines the objectives and parameters of the project. They work with others to create a project schedule and budget that will guide project execution. They need to understand project priorities so they can make independent decisions. They must know how to monitor and report project progress. Although much of this book is written from the perspective of a project manager, the tools, concepts, and methods are critical to everyone working on a project. Project members need to know how to avoid the dangers of scope creep, manage the critical path, engage in timely risk management, negotiate, and utilize virtual tools to communicate. page 12 SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 1.4 Ron Parker 1986 BS Business Administration—Oregon State University 1986–1990 Food Products Manufacturing 1990–1994 Wood Products Manufacturing 1994–Current Glass Products Manufacturing Upon completion of my business degree at Oregon State University, I was recruited by a Fortune 100 food products company for a first-line production supervisor position. In that role, an opportunity came up for me to manage a project that involved rolling out a new statistical package-weight-control program throughout the factory. Successfully completing that project was instrumental in accelerating my career within the company, advancing from supervisor to product manager in less than three years. After four years in food products I accepted an offer to join a wood products manufacturing company. Initially my role in this company was human resource manager. My HR responsibilities included managing several projects to improve safety and employee retention. Successful completion of these projects led to a promotion to plant manager. In the plant manager role, I was tasked with building and managing a new wood door manufacturing factory. After successfully taking that factory to full production, I was promoted again, to corporate manager of continuous improvement. This “culture change” project involved implementing total quality management throughout 13 different manufacturing factories as well as all the indirect and support functions within the corporation. Shortly after we successfully ingrained this new culture in the company, the owner passed away, leading me to look for other employment. I was able to leverage my previous experience and success to convince the owner of a struggling glass fabrication company to hire me. In this new role as general manager, I was tasked with turning the company around. This was my largest project yet. Turning a company around involves a myriad of smaller improvement projects spanning from facilities and equipment improvements to product line additions and deletions to sales and marketing strategy and everything in between. In four years we successfully turned the company around to the extent that the owner was able to sell the company and comfortably retire. Successfully turning that glass company around got the attention of a much larger competitor of ours, resulting in an offer of employment. This new offer involved the startup of a $30M high-tech glass manufacturing facility in another state. We were able to take that facility from a dirt field to the highest-volume manufacturing facility of its kind in the world in just three years. After building and operating this factory at a world-class benchmark level for eight years, I came across a new and exciting opportunity to help expand a strong glass fabrication company in Canada. I spent four years successfully transitioning this Canadian company from a medium-sized glass fabrication facility to one of the largest and most successful of its kind in North America. After tiring of the “Great White North,” I found an opportunity to tackle the largest and most impactful project of my career. I’m currently VP of operations in a venture-funded, high-tech, start-up company. In this role, I’m overseeing the construction and start-up of the first full-scale, high-volume electrochromic glass fabrication factory in the world. This new project involves building a company from the ground up and taking an exciting new technology from the lab to full-scale commercialization. Success in this role, although still far from being certain, will eventually revolutionize the glass industry through the introduction of a product that dramatically improves the energy efficiency and occupant comfort of buildings around the world. Looking back on my career, it is apparent that my degree of success has largely been the result of taking on and successfully completing successively larger and increasingly impactful projects. There’s a saying that’s always resonated with me: “If your only tool is a hammer, all your problems look like nails.” Good tools are hard to come by and heavy to carry around. I like my tool bag filled with generalist tools: things like communication skills, leadership, common sense, judgment, reasoning, logic, and a strong sense of urgency. I often wonder how much more I could have accomplished, had I actually studied project management and had more of that toolset in my bag. With a bag full of strong generalist tools, you can tackle any problem in any business. Project management is clearly one of those skills where the better you are at it, the higher your chances of success in any business environment. Having the tools is only part of the equation, though. To be successful, you must also be willing to run at problems/opportunities when everyone else is running away from them. ©Ron Parker 1.2 Agile Project Management LO 1-4 Describe how Agile PM is different from traditional PM. Traditional project management focuses on thorough planning up front. Planning requires predictability. For plans to be effective, managers have to have a good understanding of what is to be accomplished and how to do it. For example, when it comes to building a bridge, engineers can draw upon proven technology and design principles to plan and build the bridge. Not all projects enjoy such predictability. Figure 1.2 speaks to this issue. FIGURE 1.2 Project Uncertainty Project uncertainty varies according to the extent the project scope is known and stable and the technology to be used is known and proven. Many projects, like the bridge project, product extensions, events, marketing campaigns, and so forth have well-established scopes and use proven technology, which provide the predictability for effective planning. However, when the project scope and/or technology is not fully known, things become much less predictable and plan-driven methods suffer. Such was the case for software development projects where it was estimated that in 1995 American firms and agencies spent $81 billion for canceled software projects (The Standish Group, 1995). page 13 Enter Agile project management (Agile PM). Agile methodologies emerged out of frustration with using traditional project management processes to develop software. Software projects are notorious for having unstable scopes in which end user requirements are discovered not defined up front. Agile PM is now being used across industries to manage projects with high levels of uncertainty. Examples of people encountering highuncertainty work include software systems engineers, product designers, explorers, doctors, lawyers, and many problem-solving engineers.1 Fundamentally, Agile PM employs an incremental, iterative process sometimes referred to as a “rolling wave” approach to complete projects (see Figure 1.3). Instead of trying to plan for everything up front, the scope of the project evolves. That is, the final project design/outcome is not known in great detail and is continuously developed through a series of incremental iterations (waves). Iterations typically last from one to four weeks. The goal of each iteration is to make tangible progress such as page 14 define a key requirement, solve a technical problem, or create desired features to demonstrate to the customer. At the end of each iteration, progress is reviewed, adjustments are made, and a different iterative cycle begins. Each new iteration subsumes the work of the previous iterations until the project is completed and the customer is satisfied. FIGURE 1.3 Rolling Wave Development Agile PM focuses on active collaboration between the project team and customer representatives, breaking projects into small functional pieces, and adapting to changing requirements. It is not simply a question of either/or. Agile methods are often used up front in the defining phase to establish specifications and requirements, and then traditional methods are used to plan, execute, and close the project. Agile methods may be used to address certain technical issues on a project while most of the project work is being managed in the traditional way. The internal dynamics on Agile projects is quite different from the traditional PM approach. Agile works best in small teams of four to eight members. Instead of directing and integrating the work of others, the project manager serves as a facilitator and coach. The team manages itself, deciding who should do what and how it should be done. Agile PM will be discussed in depth in Chapter 15 and where appropriate throughout the text. page 15 1.3 Current Drivers of Project Management Project management is no longer a special-need management. It is rapidly becoming a standard way of doing business. See Snapshot from Practice 1.5: Project Management in Action: 2019. An increasing percentage of the typical firm’s effort is being devoted to projects. The future promises an increase in the importance and role of projects in contributing to the strategic direction of organizations. Several reasons for this are discussed briefly in this section. Compression of the Product Life Cycle One of the most significant driving forces behind the demand for project management is the shortening of the product life cycle. For example, today in high-tech industries the product life cycle is averaging 6 months to 3 years. Only 30 years ago, life cycles of 10 to 15 years were not uncommon. Time-to-market for new products with short life cycles has become increasingly important. A common rule of thumb in the world of high-tech product development is that a 6-month project delay can result in a 33 percent loss in product revenue share. Speed, therefore, becomes a competitive advantage; more and more organizations are relying on crossfunctional project teams to get new products and services to the market as quickly as possible. Knowledge Explosion The growth in new knowledge has increased the complexity of projects because projects encompass the latest advances. For example, building a road 30 years ago was a somewhat simple process. Today, each area has increased in complexity, including materials, specifications, codes, aesthetics, equipment, and required specialists. Similarly, in today’s digital, electronic age it is becoming hard to find a new product that does not contain at least one microchip. The same is likely to be true soon for artificial intelligence (AI). Product complexity has increased the need to integrate divergent technologies. Project management has emerged as the key discipline for achieving this task. Triple Bottom Line (Planet, People, Profit) The threat of global warming has brought sustainable business practices to the forefront. Businesses can no longer simply focus on maximizing profit to the detriment of the environment and society. Efforts to reduce carbon imprint and utilize renewable resources are realized through effective project management. The impact of this movement toward sustainability can be seen in changes in the objectives and techniques used to complete projects. For example, achieving a high LEED certification award is often an objective on construction projects.2 Increased Customer Focus Increased competition has placed a premium on customer satisfaction. Customers no longer simply settle for generic products and services. They want customized products and services that cater to their specific needs. This mandate requires a much closer working relationship between the provider and the receiver. Account executives and sales page 16 representatives are assuming more of a project manager’s role as they work with their organization to satisfy the unique needs and requests of clients. SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE 1.5 Project Management in Action: 2019* Businesses and nonprofits thrive and survive based on their ability to manage projects that produce products and services that meet market needs. Here is a small sample of projects that are important to their companies’ futures. INTUITIVE SURGICAL INC.: MONARCH PROJECT The Monarch platform is an AI-driven robot featuring two arms with a long, blue tube attached that allows a doctor to steer a camera and other surgical implements deep inside the body. Intuitive hopes to one day use robots to not only diagnose but also treat lung cancer. WALT DISNEY/MARVEL STUDIOS: CAPTAIN MARVEL Captain Marvel is a superhero film based on Marvel Comics character Carol Danvers/Captain Marvel. The film stars Academy Award–winner Brie Larson in the title role. It is Marvel’s first female-led superhero movie and is seen by many as a response to D.C.’s popular Wonder Woman film. PROJECT C.U.R.E.: CARGO Cargo projects deliver semi-trailer-sized cargo containers carrying medication donations to underresourced hospitals, clinics, and community health centers in developing countries. Each 40-foot container delivers an average $4 million worth of medical supplies and equipment. SIKORSKY-BOEING: DEFIANT PROJECT Boeing and Sikorsky have teamed up to develop a prototype for the next-generation military helicopter. The SB-1 Defiant is being built to travel faster, longer, and more quietly than other models. At stake is a billion-dollar-plus contract with the U.S. Department of Defense. AUDI: E-TRON SUV E-tron is Audi’s first entry into the all-electric vehicle market. It is a fully equipped, luxury SUV with a 220-mile range. With a starting price of $74,800, it is meant to compete against Tesla’s electric SUV and Jaguar’s I-Pace, as well as establish Audi as a significant player in the growing all-electric market. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: TROPICAL FOREST RESTORATION In many parts of the tropics, deforestation results in areas dominated by colonizing ferns. The Dominican restoration project involves manually removing ferns and planting native trees and shrubs. *Chafkin, M., “This Robot Can Detect Lung Cancer,” BusinessWeek, April 2, 2018; Coggan, D., “Production Underway on Marvel Studios’ ‘Captain Marvel,’” Marvel.com, March 3, 2018; “C.U.R.E. Cargo,” projectcure.org. Accessed 2/15/19; Rockwood, K., “The Next Wave,” PM Network, June 2018, pp. 6–7; Society for Ecological Restoration, “Dominican Republic: Restoring Tropical Forest at Sites Dominated by Anthropogenic Fern Thickets,” ser-rrc.org. Accessed 2/25/19; “The Audi e-tron SUV Is an Electric Shot at Tesla,” techcrunch.com, September 9, 2018. Accessed 2/22/19. Increased customer attention has also prompted the development of customized products and services. For example, 25 years ago buying a set of golf clubs was a relatively simple process: you picked out a set based on price and feel. Today there are golf clubs for tall players and short players, clubs for players who tend to slice the ball and clubs for those who hook the ball, high-tech clubs with the latest metallurgic discovery guaranteed to add distance, and so forth. Project management is critical both to developing customized products and services and to sustaining lucrative relationships with customers. Small Projects Represent Big Problems The velocity of change required to remain competitive or simply keep up has created an organizational climate in which hundreds of projects are implemented concurrently. This climate has created a multiproject environment and a plethora of new problems. Sharing and page 17 prioritizing resources across a portfolio of projects is a major challenge for senior management. Many firms have no idea of the problems involved with inefficient management of small projects. Small projects typically carry the same or more risk as large projects. Small projects are perceived as having little impact on the bottom line because they do not demand large amounts of scarce resources and/or money. Because so many small projects are going on concurrently and because the perception of the inefficiency impact is small, measuring inefficiency is usually nonexistent. Unfortunately, many small projects soon add up to large sums of money. Many customers and millions of dollars are lost each year on small projects in product and service organizations. Small projects can represent hidden costs not measured in the accounting system. Organizations with many small projects going on concurrently face the most difficult project management problems. A key question becomes one of how to create an organizational environment that supports multiproject management. A process is needed to prioritize and develop a portfolio of small projects that supports the mission of the organization. In summary, there are a variety of environmental forces interacting in today’s business world that contribute to the increased demand for good project management across all industries and sectors. 1.4 Project Management Today: A SocioTechnical Approach LO 1-5 Understand that managing projects involves balancing the technical and sociocultural dimensions of the project. Managing a project is a multidimensional process (see Figure 1.4). The first dimension is the technical side of the management process, which consists of the formal, disciplined, purely logical parts of the process. This technical dimension includes planning, scheduling, and controlling projects. Clear project scope statements are written to link the project and customer and to facilitate planning and control. Creation of the deliverables and work breakdown structures facilitates planning and monitoring the progress of the project. The work breakdown structure serves as a database that links all levels in the organization, major deliverables, and all work—right page 18 down to the tasks in a work package. Effects of project changes are documented and traceable. Thus, any change in one part of the project is traceable to the source by the integrated linkages of the system. This integrated information approach can provide all project managers and the customer with decision information appropriate to their level and needs. A successful project manager will be well trained in the technical side of managing projects. FIGURE 1.4 A Socio-Technical Approach to Project Management The second and opposing dimension is the sociocultural side of project management. In contrast to the orderly world of project planning, this dimension involves the much messier, often contradictory and paradoxical world of implementation. It centers on creating a temporary social system within a larger organizational environment that combines the talents of a divergent set of professionals working to complete the project. Project managers must shape a project culture that stimulates teamwork and high levels of personal motivation as well as a capacity to quickly identify and resolve problems that threaten project work. Things rarely go as planned and project managers must be able to steer the project back on track or alter directions when necessary. The sociocultural dimension also involves managing the interface between the project and external environment. Project managers have to assuage and shape the expectations of customers, sustain the political support of top management, and negotiate with their functional counterparts, monitor subcontractors, and so on. Overall, the manager must build a cooperative social network among a divergent set of allies with different standards, commitments, and perspectives. Some suggest that the technical dimension represents the “science” of project management, while the sociocultural dimension represents the “art” of managing a project. To be successful, a manager must be a master of both. Unfortunately, some project managers become preoccupied with the planning and technical dimension of project management. Often their first real exposure to project management is through project management software, and they become infatuated with network charts, Gantt diagrams, and performance variances; they attempt to manage a project from a distance. Conversely there are other managers who manage projects by the “seat of their pants,” relying heavily on charisma and organizational politics to complete a project. Good project managers work with others to balance their attention to both the technical and sociocultural aspects of project management. Summary Project management is a critical skill set in today’s world. A project is defined as a nonroutine, one-time effort limited by time, resources, and performance specifications designed to meet customer needs. One of the distinguishing characteristics of project management is that it has both a beginning and an end and typically consists of four phases: defining, planning, executing, and closing. Successful implementation requires both technical and social skills. Project managers have to plan and budget projects as well as orchestrate the contributions of others. Text Overview This text is written to provide the reader with a comprehensive, sociotechnical understanding of project management. The text focuses on both the science and the art of managing projects. Following this introductory chapter, Chapter 2 focuses on how organizations go about evaluating and selecting projects. Special attention is devoted to the importance of page 19 aligning project selection to the mission and strategy of the firm. The organizational environment in which projects are implemented is the focus of Chapter 3. The discussion of matrix management and other organizational forms is augmented by a discussion of the significant role the culture of an organization plays in the implementation of projects. The next six chapters focus on developing a plan for the project; after all, project success begins with a good plan. Chapter 4 deals with defining the scope of the project and developing a work breakdown structure (WBS). The challenge of formulating cost and time estimates is the subject of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on utilizing the information from the WBS to create a project plan in the form of a timed and sequenced network of activities. Risks are a potential threat to every project, and Chapter 7 examines how organizations and managers identify and manage risks associated with project work. Resource allocation is added to the plan in Chapter 8, with special attention devoted to how resource limitations impact the project schedule. After a resource schedule is established, a project time-phased budget is developed. Finally, Chapter 9 examines strategies for reducing (“crashing”) project time either prior to the initiation of the project or in response to problems or new demands placed on the project. Throughout all these technical discussions, the sociocultural aspects are highlighted. Chapters 10 through 12 focus on project implementation and the sociocultural side of project management. Chapter 10 focuses on the role of the project manager as a leader and stresses the importance of managing project stakeholders within the organization. Chapter 11 focuses on the core project team; it combines the latest information on team dynamics with leadership skills/techniques for developing a high-performance project team. Chapter 12 continues the theme of managing project stakeholders by discussing how to outsource project work and negotiate with contractors, customers, and suppliers. Chapter 13 focuses on the kinds of information managers use to monitor project progress, with special attention devoted to the key concept of earned value. The project life cycle is completed with Chapter 14, which covers closing out a project and the important assessment of performance and lessons learned. Agile project management, a much more flexible approach to managing projects with high degree of uncertainty, is the subject of Chapter 15. Finally, so many projects today are global; Chapter 16 focuses on working on projects across cultures. Throughout this text you will be exposed to the major aspects of the project management system. However, a true understanding of project management comes not from knowing what a scope statement is, or the critical path, or partnering with contractors, but from comprehending how the different elements of the project management system interact to determine the fate of a project. If by the end of this text you come to appreciate and begin to master both the technical and sociocultural dimensions of project management, you should have a distinct competitive advantage over others aspiring to work in the field of project management. Key Terms Agile project management (Agile PM), 13 Program, 7 Project, 6 Project life cycle, 9 Project Management Professional (PMP), 4 page 20 Review Questions 1. Define a project. What are five characteristics that help differentiate projects from other functions carried out in the daily operations of the organization? 2. What are some of the key environmental forces that have changed the way projects are managed? What has been the effect of these forces on the management of projects? 3. Describe the four phases of the traditional project life cycle. Which phase do you think would be the most difficult one to complete? 4. What kinds of projects is Agile PM best suited for and why? 5. The technical and sociocultural dimensions of project management are two sides of the same coin. Explain. SNAPSHOT FROM PRACTICE Discussion Questions 1.1 The Project Management Institute 1. If you were a student interested in pursuing a career in project management, how important do you think being a CAPM would be? 2. How valuable do you think being certified PMP is? 1.3 London Calling: Seattle Seahawks versus Oakland Raiders 1. Why was it important to give players and staff a chance to explore London one evening? 2. What are one or two lessons you learned from this Snapshot? 1.4 Ron Parker 1. Do you agree with Ron Parker’s statement “To be successful, you must also be willing to run at problems/opportunities when everyone else is running away from them”? Exercises 1. Review the front page of your local newspaper and try to identify all the projects contained in the articles. How many were you able to find? 2. Individually, identify what you consider to be humanity’s greatest achievements in the last five decades. Now share your list with three to five other students in the class and come up with an expanded list. Review these great achievements in terms of the definition of a project. What does your review suggest about the importance of project management? 3. Individually, identify projects assigned in previous terms. Were both sociocultural and technical elements factors in the success or difficulties in the projects? 4. Check out the Project Management Institute’s home page at www.pmi.org. a. Review general information about PMI as well as membership information. b. See if there is a local PMI chapter. If not, where is the closest one? c. Use the search function at the PMI home page to find information on Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). What are the major knowledge areas of PMBOK? d. Explore other links that PMI provides. What do these links tell you about the nature and future of project management? page 21 References Benko, C., and F. W. McFarlan, Connecting the Dots (Boston: HBS Press, 2003). Cohen, D. J., and R. J. Graham, The Project Manager’s MBA (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001). Darnell, R., “The Emerging Role of the Project Manager,” PM Network, 1997. Derby, C., and O. Zwikael, “The Secret of (Defining) Success,” PM Network, August 2012, pp. 20–22. Gray, Clifford, “Program Management, a Primer,” PM World Today, August 2011, pp. 1–7. Jonas, D., “Empowering Project Portfolio Managers: How Management Involvement Impacts Project Management Performance,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 28, no. 8 (2010), pp. 818–31. Mortensen, M., and H. K. Gardner, “The Overcommitted Organization,” Harvard Business Review, September/October 2017, pp. 58–65. Peters, T., PM Network, January 2004, p. 19. PMI/Agile Alliance, Agile Practice Guide (Chicago: Independent Publishers Group, 2017). Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) (Newton Square, PA: PMI Publishing, 2017). Project Management Institute, Leadership in Project Management Annual (Newton Square, PA: PMI Publishing, 2006). Schwaber, K., Agile Project Management with Scrum (Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 2004). The Standish Group, CHAOS Summary 1995 (Dennis, MA: Standish, 1995). The Standish Group, CHAOS Summary 2009 (Dennis, MA: Standish, 2009). Stewart, T. A., “The Corporate Jungle Spawns a New Species: The Project Manager,” Fortune, September 1996, pp. 14–15. Case 1.1 A Day in the Life—2019 Troi, the project manager of a large information systems project, arrives at her office early to get caught up with work before her co-workers and project …



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