(Mt) – The History of The Internet of Things for Network Devices

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly popular in both business and everyday life. • • • • Explain what the Internet of Things (IoT) is and provide a brief history, in your own words, of the IoT. Discuss the potential impact that IoT can have on how people live. Select a company and explain how the organization has benefited from the IoT. Detail specific examples of how the company benefited. How has the IoT been impacted by the pandemic? Explain specific examples. Your well-written report should be 6 pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. To make it easier to read and therefore grade, make sure you clearly delineate each section of your answer so it can be matched with the relevant question. Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing at least two references as appropriate. Review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment. IT for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability Eleventh Edition Turban, Pollard, Wood Chapter 4 Networks, Collaborative Technology, and The Internet of Things Learning Objectives (1 of 4) Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2 Network Fundamentals Defined • A computer network is a set of computers connected together for the purpose of sharing recourses. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 Common Network Types Acronym Type Characteristics Example LAN Local Area Network Short distance connection Office School Home WAN Wide Area Network Spans large physical distance Internet Large company WLAN Wireless LAN LAN based on Wi-Fi technology Internet Large company Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 4 Intranets, Extranets, and Virtual Private Networks • Intranets are used within a company for data access, sharing, and collaboration. • Extranets are private, company-owned networks that can be logged into remotely via the Internet. • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are used where security of transmissions is a concern, because they encrypt the packets before they are transferred over the network. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5 Virtual Private Networks A virtual tunnel routed through the Internet with software and hardware encryption. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 6 Network Terminology • Modem: a device that modulates/demodulates signal for transportation • Modulation and Coding: Techniques used by modem to adapt the signal to the media • Signal: Binary information we want to send. • Signal Frequency Spectrum: All the frequency components of a signal • Media Bandwidth: Limit in range of frequency signals • Capacity Bandwidth: Maximum bits per second that can be transmitted Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 7 Figure 4.4 Basic functions of business networks Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 8 Quality of Service (QoS) • Latent-sensitivity: data such as real-time voice and high-quality video. • Prioritized Traffic: data and apps that are time-delaysensitive or latency-sensitive apps. • Throttle Traffic: gives latency-sensitive apps priority, other types of traffic need to be held back (throttled). • Traffic Shaping: the ability to prioritize and throttle network traffic. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 9 The Net Neutrality Debate • Net neutrality is the principle that Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and their regulators treat all Internet traffic the same way. • Traffic shaping prioritizes the flow of traffic by delaying the flow of less important network traffic. • In 2010, the FCC ruled in favor of “net semi-neutrality”, not explicitly forbidding paid prioritization. • The FCC under the current administration may take further steps to roll back net neutrality rulings, which could favor the cable companies over consumers. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10 Network Fundamentals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Name different types of networks. What is meant by “bandwidth”? What is the difference between an intranet and an extranet? How does a virtual private network (VPN) provide security? What is the purpose of a modem? Describe the basic functions of business networks. How do investments in network infrastructure impact an organization? 8. Name the two tiers of traffic to which Quality-of-Service is applied. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11 Learning Objectives (2 of 4) Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12 Internet Protocols, APIs, and Network Capabilities • Internet Protocol (IP) is the basic technology that makes global communication possible. Each devise attached to a network has a unique IP address that enables it to send and receive files made up of packets. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13 IP Addresses and Packets Figure 4.5: IPv4 addresses have four groups of four alphanumeric characters, which allows for 232 or roughly 4.3 billion unique IP address. IPv6 addresses have eight groups of alphanumeric characters, which allows for 2128 , or 340 trillion, trillion addresses. IPv6 offers also enhanced quality of service that is needed by the latest in video, interactive games, and e-commerce. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 14 Broadband Technology: 3G/4G/5G • 3G networks support multimedia and broadband services over a wider distance and at faster speeds than prior generation networks. They use large satellite connections to telecommunication towers. • 4G networks are digital, or IP, networks that enable even faster data transfer rates. 4G delivers average realistic download rates of 3 Mbps or higher (as opposed to theoretical rates, which are higher). • 5G networks, the coming generation of broadband technology. 5G will dramatically increase the speed at which data is transferred across the network. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 15 Network Technology Standards • WiMAX IEEE 802.16 o 30-mile range o 70 Megabits per second (Mbps) o Line-of-site not required o Same principles as Wi-Fi (using radio signals) o • Long-Term Evolution (LTE) GSM deployed by Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile o 100 Mbps downlink, 50 Mbps uplink o Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 16 Circuit vs. Packet Switching • Circuit switching o o Older technology that originated with telephone calls Inefficient for digital transmission • Packet Switching o o o Transfers data or voice Files are broken into packets, numbered sequentially, routed individually to their destinations When received at the destination, the packets are reassembled into their proper sequences Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 17 Application Programming Interfaces and Operating Systems • Application Program Interface (API) consists of a set of functions, commands, and protocols used by programmers for OS-interactivity without having to write a program from scratch. • Can be automated for simplified usability o o o Twitter Facebook Amazon Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 18 Figure 4.7 API value chain in business. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 19 Internet Protocols (IP), APIs, and Network Capabilities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Why has IPv6 become increasingly important? What is the difference between IPv4 and IPv6? What is the purpose of an IP address? What are the benefits of using an API? What is the difference between 4G and 5G? What is the most current network standard? What benefits will the upcoming 5G network standard offer businesses? 8. What is the difference between circuit switching and packet switching? Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 20 Learning Objectives (3 of 4) Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 21 Figure 4.8 Four drivers of global mobile traffic through 2020 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 22 Mobile Data Traffic Milestone by 2020 Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 23 Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure • Mobile Networks o o o Bluetooth: short-range wireless communication technology allowing device pairing Wi-Fi: standard way to wirelessly connect computing devices through routers commonly connected to the Internet WiMax: transmits voice, data, and video over high-frequency radio signals designed as alternative to cable and DSL Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 24 Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs: A mashup of GPS and Bluetooth • General term referring to the integration of two or more technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi Provide intelligence o Inter-Automobile collision avoidance o Sudden braking o Can automatically call emergency services o Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 25 Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs: Near-Field Communication (NFC) • Enables two devices within close proximity to establish a communication channel and transfer data using radio waves • More secure than other wireless technologies • Examples: Apple iWatch o Digital tickets providing access to concerts o Transmit public transport payment through phones o Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 26 Four Important Factors When Choosing a Mobile Network Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 27 Mobile Networks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What factors are contributing to mobility? Why is mobile global traffic increasing? What accounts for the increase in mobile traffic? Give some examples of VoIP networks. How is NFC different from RFID? What are the two components of a wireless network infrastructure? 7. What is Near Field Communication and how is it used in business? 8. What factors should be considered when evaluating a mobile network? Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 28 Learning Objectives (4 of 4) Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 29 Collaborative Technologies: Virtual Collaboration–Benefits • Information sharing between retailers and suppliers (Example: Walmart and Proctor & Gamble) • Retailer-supplier collaboration (Example: Asda Corp.) • Lower transportation and inventory costs and reduced stockouts (Example: Unilever’s Transportation Business Center) • Reduction of product development time (Example: Caterpillar, Inc.) Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 30 Collaborative Technologies: Group Work • Group Work and Dynamics can be quite complex • Group workers can be located in different places or work at different times • Group members may work for the same or different organizations • Data, information, or knowledge may be located in many sources that may be external to the organization Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 31 Collaborative Technologies: Brainstorming in the Cloud • Companies are now using cloud-based online brainstorming applications • Avoids travel expenses if members are geographically dispersed • No restriction to number of sessions • Examples Evernote—features function to synchronize user’s notes o iMindmap Online—relies on mind mapping and other structured approaches to help streamline work processes o Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 32 The Internet of Things (IoT) Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects or “things” embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, that enables these objects to collect and exchange data. • Objects we interact with send signals to and from each other, collecting data • IoT collects that data from millions of sensors embedded in everything from cars, to refrigerators, to space capsules • Half of U.S. manufacturers report they are currently using IoT technology to collect machine data (Industry Week study, 2016) • A smaller percentage (44%) are colleting data from sensors embedded in their products Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 33 Advantages of IoT 1. Monitoring performance, quality, and reliability of products and services 2. Gaining insight into potential new products and service 3. Support sales 4. Better understand product use 5. Remote troubleshooting of products 6. Deliver revenue-generating post-sales services 7. More efficiently deliver post-sales services Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 34 Disadvantages of IoT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Network security Data privacy Data analysis capabilities Data collection capabilities Realistic efficiency opportunities Realistic new revenue opportunities Cost Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 35 Collaboration Technologies and the Internet of Things (IoT) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why is group work challenging? What might limit the use of in-person brainstorming? How can online brainstorming tools overcome those limits? List ways in which virtual collaboration can be used in business. What devices do you have that take advantage of the IoT? Describe how they impact the way that you live and work. 6. What is driving the rise of IoT? 7. What is the main concern that organizations have about the IoT? 8. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of the IoT? Explain. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 36 Copyright Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 37

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