PED 450 Norfolk State University Health & Fitness Instructor Report

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PED 450 Interactive Learning-Comprehensive Application Paper Motor Development, Motor Control & Motor Learning Learning outcomes: By completing the Comprehensive Application Paper, students will be able to • integrate motor development, motor control and motor learning with real-world scenarios to enhance career preparedness through interactions with a practitioner with 75% accuracy. • apply the concepts of motor development, motor control and motor learning to analyze a motor problem and synthesize an effective solution relevant to the curricular area of study with 75% accuracy. The ability to apply the knowledge you’ve obtained to tasks or situations in the real world is a benchmark of true learning. If you can demonstrate your ability to use the theories and information to solve problems and diagnose issues in the learning process, you can say you have truly learned the PED 450 material. This semester you will apply your knowledge to one of two scenarios posted for each of the programs within the Exercise Science major and asked you to apply all your knowledge to this problem. This knowledge includes the motor development, motor control and motor learning issues that are pertinent to the scenario. The more concepts you can apply, the more you demonstrate your ability gained in this course. Read the assignment carefully, think it over, outline where concepts apply and formulate a well-written typed and analytic paper. Choose one of the following scenarios: Health & Fitness Instructor • Male adult entering a beginning yoga class • Woman 2 months pregnant wanting to work out over the course of her pregnancy Build the Paper as the Term Progresses: This application paper assignment helps you to combine your knowledge of all three motor behavior areas and apply it to a real-life problem. You will be prompted toward the end of each content modules (MD, MC and ML) to draft that section of the paper. The focus of the paper is to apply the motor learning, motor development and motor control theories to a number of problems and then apply this learning to the scenario selected for the Interactive Learning-Comprehensive Motor Application Paper. When drafting your subject for the scenario, ensure you provide enough information to utilize contextual information when applying the theories and concepts. Written Paper Task: Provide additional demographic information about the individual for which you are building your case. Consider if the individual has any disabilities (e.g. cognitive, affective, types of crutches, etc.), previous experiences, strength, goals, previous fitness level engagement, etc. Write a paragraph to provide background information about the individual as this will help set up your case. When developing the Comprehensive Application Paper, you are to independently connect examples, facts and theories form the three fields of studies and the perspectives of the field most directly aligned with your program of study. Analyze all the motor development issues (all constraints, correctness of movement form, skill progression), the motor control issues (abilities and capabilities, goal setting, schema, focus, reaction time), and the motor learning issues (type and duration of practice, feedback, error detection and error correction) as they pertain to one of the two scenarios noted for your program. Discuss in detail how and why these elements reflect on the planning you should do to complete the task. DO NOT design the practice and tell me how you will work on it. Make an effort to properly apply the theoretical concepts of the semester, as this will be reflected in the grade earned and preparedness for your final senior internship. Milani Gray Motor Learning Comprehensive Motor Application Paper Sam is a seven- year old girl who got hit by a car and both her legs were shattered. Sam has since recovered and now walked using forearm crutches. Despite the fact that she fractured her legs, which put her ability to walk in jeopardy, Sam’s main goal is to be able to walk again without relying on crutches. Fracturing her legs has been challenging both mentally and physically, but her friends and family are by her side cheering her on which allows her to remain confident that she will one day walk without assistance again. Sam has been using crutches for less than a month, therefore the crutches are still difficult to use. The adolescent phase can be one of the most interesting phases of a child’s life. During this phase is when children typically develop skills, having already mastered basic motor skills, and now enhancing them, as well as learning new things everyday that will carry them throughout a lifetime. Life is pretty simple at this phase. However, for seven-year-old Sam, things are a bit more complicated now. She is a vibrant child, who attends school, and once enjoyed participating in extracurricular activities such as playing sports, and volunteering within her church. Sam now finds these tasks, in particular, playing her favorite sport, soccer, nearly impossible after her injury. She is now dependent on the use of forearm crutches to assist her walking after the accident. The three fields of study: motor development, motor control, and motor learning are all compromised due to this accident, and now rehabilitation is the next option for Sam. Movement is impossible without the proper knowledge of fundamental motor skills. When hit by a car, a variety of issues can occur that can cause these motor skills to experience issues in terms of development. The gross motor skills involve using the large muscles, which develop first, and allow skills such as walking to be possible. These gross motor skills are noticeable in infants when they begin to pick their head up. The subsequent months will continue to show development of gross motor skills. As the age of 1 is approaching, most babies will begin to stand and walk on their own. By the age of seven, which describes Sam, walking is a complex motor skill that she has been able to do without thinking for the majority of her short life. The injury sustained by being hit by a car has caused Sam’s walking ability to be compromised, and relearning the process with the assistance of forearm crutches is now necessary. Walking does come naturally for the most part, but there are 5 steps an individual must follow in order to walk properly and efficiently: 1)Walking usually starts with the feet at the extended position where the feet are the farthest apart. This is the point where weight shifts to the forward foot. 2) As the weight of the body is transferred to the forward foot, the knee bends to absorb the shock. This position is called the recoil position, and is the lowest point in the walk. 3) This is halfway through the first step of a walk. As you move forward, the knee straightens out and lifts the body to its highest point. This is called passing (recovery) position, because this is where the foot passes the supporting leg. 4)As you move forward, the weight bearing foot lifts off the ground at the heel, apply the force to the ball of the foot. This is where the body starts to fall for it. The free foot then swings forward to catch the ground. 5) The free leg makes contact with the ground. This is exactly half of the cycle. The second half is an exact number of the first. If it is not the exact same the person may appear to limp. In order to get Sam back to the normal 7-year-old lifestyle of before, therapists must develop goals for the patient, with consideration from the parents, that ultimately will allow Sam to recover from the injury, and walk normally again. Target skills, behaviors, and context are all considerations that must be examined. The target skill for Sam would be being able to walk without the assistance of forearm crutches. The behaviors would include everything necessary for this target skill to be able to be accomplished. Each of the skills that Sam and the therapist do leading up to this target skill such as starting with small steps, to eventually walking completely unassisted. Finally context would include the location where these target skills and behaviors are able to be possible. For Sam, the context would be to learn how to walk again with assistance of the forearm crutches to eventually having no need for them at all. Learning to walk again first with the assistance of the forearm crutches will build the confidence necessary for Sam to eventually be able to walk completely on her own again. As progress is made, the sense of independence Sam once had will soon return. The use of forearm crutches, a closed motor skill, may eventually become open as this independence will allow Sam variability in conditions, as the forearm crutches limit certain conditions. The forearm crutches are the best option for children, so the process will be made a bit easier than if they were not available, or standard crutches were used in Sam’s rehabilitation process. Walking is done automatically, typically without much thought. Considering how many steps it requires for walking, individual constraints of the inability to walk can cause other motor skills to decline as well. Constraints in motor development are the factors that limit, contain, or help shape the development of movement. They can be structural, functional, environmental, and tasks. Structural constraints Sam may experience as a result of her accident vary due to her age, and development still occurring. With this being said, her strength, in both herself, and her legs that have been injured are examples. By not being able to walk before the introduction of the forearm crutches, the developing muscles have gotten weaker, since they have not been used. The forearm crutches provide good arm and upper body strength, but are better in distributing weight equitably to the whole upper body. They are usually the best option for children such as Sam because they do not put pressure on nerves and blood vessels under the arm that could damage them. Functional constraints in a child as young as Sam may be difficult to determine. As a child, not being able to participate in the same activities as everyone else, or anything that simply interrupts being a kid is a deterrent. Childhood is one of the most exciting times of a lifetime, and spending it learning to walk again is not ideal for anyone. At the same time, the acknowledgement of missing out on the activities of other children may just be the individual motivation needed by Sam. Environmental constraints are pretty simple, as they include gravity, lightening, and other natural occurrences. These will more than likely not have any effect on Sam’s rehabilitation. However, task constraints, including shoes, clothing, and relearning the walking process are all experiences Sam most undergo to be completely rehabilitated. The usage of forearm crutches will require shoes that will avoid slipping which could lead to further injury, while clothing options will more than likely remain the decision of the parents. It can be difficult to just explain the 5 steps of walking to a child so young, and can lead to further injury when understanding is not clear. Motor development encompasses the physical growth and strengthening of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move and touch his/her surroundings. By the age of seven, Sam has already developed the large motor skills of walking, running, and participating in sports. The accident has caused her skill progression to decrease significantly, as she is now dependent on the forearm crutches to assist her in tasks such as walking, while running and playing sports are impossible during this rehabilitation process. Motor control in children includes the ability to use the muscles for a particular task. Forearm crutches create a unique issue of control as the flexible cuff that surrounds the forearm is just below the elbow. This limits movement, making not only tasks such as walking difficult, but simplistic tasks such as throwing a ball, to more difficult tasks such as riding a bike nearly impossible. Several factors will matter in learning to walk again, with and without the assistance of forearm crutches. With motor control affecting other muscles within the body during the process of rehabilitation, this is why it is important Sam is able to understand the skills of anticipation, arousal, and attention. The combination of these skills are what will allow Sam to be able to eventually walk again completely independent. Motor learning is another fundamental motor skill Sam must undergo. The stages of motor learning are the cognitive stage, the motor stage, and the autonomous stage. During the first stage, realization of the motor issue, and development of goals to tackle the issue are established. This stage requires few demonstrations, but is primarily focused on self refinement, as it is the blueprint of recovery. Walking is a repetitive process, and being taught to do it again, with any form of assistance can be difficult as it is typically a task that is done on its own. Early progression will allow for the motor stage to go successfully without hitch. The therapist’s role in rehabilitation can increase as the final stage, autonomous, occurs. Walking is then again like an automatic task, and movement does not need to be dictated. Error detection and feedback are essential to Sam’s recovery, and should be provided by both her therapist and family remembers when learning how to walk again. The first thing the therapist should watch for in therapy is Sam’s body placement when using the crutches. Often times children will rely solely on the crutches. Sam’s waist should be supported, meaning her hips should be aligned with her head and not behind it, with her trunk sticking out. Another thing the therapist should correct if seen, is body mechanics. Sam should be walking with her lower body, and not her upper body.The weight of her body should be evenly distributed when walking with the crutches. To ensure that Sam is operating correctly on the crutches, a therapist should first start of by using a device or some type of belt to keep her waist/hips aligned with the rest of her body, but making sure all her weight isn’t completely being applied to her legs just yet. Using only some of her weight in the beginning of therapy would allow for her to gain muscle memory in her legs. It’s also important for Sam to comprehend the task in order to avoid errors due to comprehension. The initial task should start off simple and slow, moving too quickly can lead to more errors in Sam’s recovery. According to Fitt’s Law moving too fast can create the possibility for more errors, and a further delay in rehabilitation for Sam. The first few therapy session should be for working on lower extremities and then her therapist should introduce complete body weight during movement once improvements were seen. Poor neuromuscular coordination should be avoided as best as possible. When walking, Sam’s feet should be pointed in the direction that she is walking and not pointed outwards. Sam should also be moving one leg at a time, not both legs. In order for Sam to be successful the therapist should watch for signs of insufficient experience, not enough strength, and fear. It is important for Sam to feel confident and motivated throughout this journey. Leg and foot exercises are a good way to help Sam build confidence. The exercises should involve flexion and extension along with eversion and inversion. Proprioceptive feedback would be useful too Sam because she would be provided with feedback that gives information about positioning of the limbs and movement of the body parts. It’s important for the learner to interpret sensory messages in order for her to correct her errors and the only way she’d able to do that would be with feedback and repetition. The family should do exercises with Sam multiple times a day in order to build the muscle memory and strength she needs in order to walk more efficiently and correctly. In conclusion, the combination of motor development, control, and learning are what make movement possible. Experiencing such a traumatic accident at such a young age can be discouraging for a developing child. The use of forearm crutches can be difficult, but are the best option to ensure rehabilitation is possible. Constraints in the development stage may be hard to manage to begin with, but as repetition continues, the process of walking with forearm crutches will be made easier for Sam. Maintaining motor control will allow for Sam to eventually be able to walk completely independent once again. While motor learning will determine the process best during the rehabilitation process. All three of these components of motor skills will allow Sam to be able to accomplish her goal of being able to walk completely independent again.



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