PHHE 461 PC Health & Medical Health Promotion Habits Discussion

SOLUTION AT Academic Writers Bay

What health promotion habits would you like to engage in to improve your health? These can be related to • Healthy eating • Physical activity • Tobacco cessation • Alcohol moderation (1) What is your plan specifically? (2) Refer to one of the behavioral change models/theories we discussed in class today and state how you will maintain the change by applying this model/theory. Respond to the following: At the beginning of this semester I started on a journey to improve my health through physical activity. There was a time that I didn’t believe I needed to change my behavior and that I was happy in my own skin. During this pre-contemplation stage, I did not believe that my behavior was a problem. Not long after I began weighing the pros and cons of engaging in physical activity. During the contemplation stage, I saw how physical activity could improve my energy level and overall mood, but I also saw how it would require me to find some more time in the day to get to the recreation center. I started going to the gym every other day. This could be considered the preparation stage. If I could not make it one day I would not worry about it. A week or so later I could be found at the gym almost every day of the week. During this active stage, I would actively find time each day to be at the gym. It has now been 4 continuous months of actively engaging in physical activity. I believe if I continue this journey I will be able to reach the maintenance stage. This would require my change to last beyond six months. And I am hopeful that I will not experience a setback or relapse this far into my physical activity lifestyle change. Elle Martell Health-Related Behavior Successful Aging/CAM PHHE 461 1 Housekeeping  Final Exam  Thursday, May 7, 3-6 p.m.  You will have 2 hours to take the exam in this 3-hour window  Final exam study guide posted  Discussion Board this week  Contact me for support 2 NIU Career Services Remote Assistance  For assistance, email [email protected] with your name, major, email address, phone number, the best time to reach you, and the topic you’d like to discuss with our staff.  Staff available remotely from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, who will reach out to you to respond to your career concern 3 NIU Career Services  Ways Career Services can help you:  Take a career assessment/test  Explore majors and careers  Internship and job openings  Drop-in services  Create your resume or cover letter  Prepare for the career fairs  Request a workshop 4 NIU Career Events (1)  Apr 14 – Jun 30  South Suburban Human Resources (SSHRA) Virtual Educators’ Job Fair  Apr 27 – Jun 19  Peace Corps Virtual Events  Apr 27 – Jun 30  South Suburban Human Resources (SSHRA) Virtual Educators’ Job Fair 5 Career Services  NIU Career Services, 220 Campus Life Building  815-753-1641    Search jobs, upload resume  Practice interviews online 24-7   Record & review your responses to typical 6 interview questions  Schedule a Perfect Interview session: 815-753- Lecture Overview  Behavioral risk factors  Behavior change theories  Successful aging  Complementary & alternative medicine 7 Behavioral Risk Factors  Tobacco use  Alcohol use & misuse  Physical activity  Diet & nutrition  Obesity 8 Physical Activity  Inactivity related to many chronic conditions  Stroke, diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, depression, obesity, colon cancer, etc.  Benefits  Improved physical & psychological health condition  Costs of physical inactivity: $95 billion (CDC estimates)  Healthy People guidelines  Moderate physical activity (walking, biking): 30+ minutes, 5 days/week  Vigorous physical activity (cardio respiratory fitness): 20+ minutes, 3 days/week  Most Americans do not follow recommendations  Those most at risk: individuals w/ low educational, income 9 levels, people w/ disabilities, low income, racial/ethnic minorities Diet & Nutrition  Poor diet related to 400,000 US deaths/year  Poor diet + physical inactivity related to  25-30% cardiovascular deaths, 30-35% cancer deaths, 5080% diabetes cases  Federal dietary guidelines for individuals ages 2+  3-5 servings/day vegetables & vegetable juices  2+ servings/day fruit  3 servings/day whole grain products  3 cups/days nonfat/low fat dairy products  No more than 30% calories from fat & 10% from saturated fat  At least 80% Americans do not follow guidelines 10 Obesity  70% of adults overweight or obese  Total expenditures: $110 billion  May add up to $2800 to annual medical bills  High prevalence overweight and obese children & adolescence  Highest prevalence among African American or Latino children & adolescents from low-income families  Higher risk chronic conditions earlier in life:  Coronary heart disease, hypertension, cancers, diabetes 11 Tobacco Use  Causes more preventable deaths & diseases than any        other behavioral risk factor 443,000 premature deaths from several forms of cancer, heart, and lung disease (CDC estimates) $96 billion in health care costs $97 billion in lost productivity 1 in 4 adults smoke Highest among low-income populations New children & teens smokers: 3000/day Second-hand smoke  27% children ages 0-6 exposed to smoke at home 12  37% nonsmoking adults exposed at home or workplace Alcohol Use/Misuse  Associated with 100,000 US deaths/year  60-90% cirrhosis deaths  40-50% auto-related fatalities  16-67% home and work injuries  $185 million  Total costs of alcohol misuse  Costs related to health care, lost wages, premature death, & crime  5% US adult population meets criteria for alcoholism or alcohol dependence  20% harmful/risky drinking  Related to auto fatalities, home/work injuries, fetal alcohol syndrome 13 Binge Drinking (1)  National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  Pattern of drinking that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 grams percent or above … typically for  Men: 5 or more drinks within 2 hours  Women: 4 or more drinks within 2 hours  One in six U.S. adults binge drinks about four times a month, consuming about eight drinks per binge  Binge drinkers are 14 times more likely to report alcohol- impaired driving than non-binge drinkers. From: 14 Binge Drinking (2)  Binge drinking associated with …  Unintentional injuries (e.g., car crashes, falls, burns, drowning)  Intentional injuries (e.g., firearm injuries, sexual assault, domestic violence)  Alcohol poisoning  Children born with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  High blood pressure, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases  Liver disease  Neurological damage  Sexually transmitted diseases  Unintended pregnancy From: 15 NIU Fraternity Hazing Event (11/2012)  Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity have been criminally charged in the death of student David Bogenberger, 19  Bogenberger died of cardiac arrest due to alcohol intoxication with a blood alcohol level was about five times the legal limit for driving  4 leaders of fraternity charged with felony hazing  Possible 1-3 year prison charges or probation  Possible expulsion from NIU  22 members of Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity charged with misdemeanors  NIU charging 31 students with violations of NIU’s code of conduct 16 NIU Fraternity Hazing Event (11/2012)  The family of Bogenberger has filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity  Likely to file lawsuit against NIU as well  Alleging that members failed to seek medical attention after the student lost consciousness  Fraternity members put Bogenberger on a couch or bed in the house after he became unconscious instead of seeking medical attention 17 Who Has Risk Factors?  Most Americans report 1 risk factor.  > 50% Americans report 2+ risk factors.  Highest prevalence risks in low-income & racial/ethnic minority groups. 18 Behavior Change Interventions  Health Belief Model  Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive Theory  Stages of Change/Transtheoretical Model  Social Marketing  Social Ecological Models of Health Behavior 19 Health Belief Model (1) Rosenstock et al. (1966); Becker (1978)  Perceived Susceptibility- how at risk am I?  Perceived Severity- how bad is it going to be?  Perceived Benefits- what will taking action (to start a healthy behavior or stop an unhealthy one) get me?  Perceived Barriers/costs- what are the costs of taking action (psychological, social, economic)  Cues to Action- factor(s) that can activate readiness/motivate people to change. Can be internal or external 20  Self-Efficacy- confidence in the ability to take action Health Belief Model (2) Assumes that a person will take a health-related action (e.g., eat a low fat, healthy diet) if that person: 1.believes that a negative health condition (e.g., heart disease) can be avoided, 2.has a positive expectation that by taking a recommended action, he/she will avoid a negative health condition (i.e., eating a low fat, healthy diet will be effective at preventing heart disease), and 3.believes that he/she can successfully take a recommended health action (i.e., he/she can eat a low fat, healthy diet comfortably and with confidence). Social Learning Theory/ Social Cognitive Theory (1) Bandura (1989)  We learn by observing  Incorporates internal and external factors of influence 22 Social Learning Theory/ Social Cognitive Theory (2)  Dominant model for effective cognitive-behavioral health behavior change interventions: why & how to change unhealthy habits  Human behavior explained by 3-way, dynamic interaction of 1. 2. 3.  People learn through   23 Personal factors Environmental influence Behavior Their experiences Observing others’ actions & results of these actions Social Learning Theory/ Social Cognitive Theory (3) 1. Education: Educate on problems of poor health outcomes & behavior change benefits 2. Skills development: Teach skills to replace unhealthy habits & set realistic goals to do so  Instead of eating, smoking to cope, …  Stress management  Self-monitoring 24 Social Learning Theory/ Social Cognitive Theory (4) 3. Environmental changes: Help people make changes in their natural environments (i.e., home, work)     25 Remove ashtrays Replace unhealthy food w/ healthy choices Exercise buddies Avoid high-risk events (i.e., parties w/ alcohol)  Problem:  Participants need to be highly motivated Stages of Change/ Transtheoretical Model (1) Prochaska & DiClemente (1983) 1. Precontemplation  2. Contemplation  3. Change lasts beyond 6 months Relapse  26 Active attempts, to sustain for up to 6 months Maintenance  6. Small initial steps Action  5. Weighing pros/cons changing behavior Preparation  4. Behavior isn’t problem Setback – re-do earlier stages Stages of Change/ Transtheoretical Model (2)  Also referred to as Stages of Change  Based on the assumption that behavior change is a process  People can be at any stage and can return to a previous stage  Your intervention should be targeted toward the stage that people are at Stages of Change/ Transtheoretical Model (3)  Alternative to “one size fits all” model: individualized, stage-tailored  Most people (80%) at  Precontemplation  Contemplation  Those with multiple risk factors can change several at the same time (Prochaska et al., 2007)  Impetus for low-cost self help tools 28 Social Marketing  Application of commercial marketing to health behavior change  Based on behavioral research  Market analysis  Audience segmentation  Development of culturally-appropriate communication & intervention strategies for  High risk, low income, racial/ethnic populations  Improve societal health/welfare as a whole  Positive transmission social ideals 29 Examples Social Marketing  Smoking cessation guide  For African American population  Promotion messages on AA radio stations  Breast feeding promotion program  For low income Latino/Hispanic women  Community center outreach initiatives 30  Suicide prevention program  For teen population  Text messaging intervention program Social Ecological Model McLeroy et al. (1988)  Integration of  Behavioral science + clinical science + public health  Person’s health influenced by many levels  Intrapersonal: physiology, knowledge, skill, motivation  Social: friends, family, colleagues  Organizational/community: availability healthy foods, health clinics  Public policies 31 Social Ecological Model 32 Population-Based Intervention Model downstream midstream -Self help programs -Worksite health promotion programs -Group & individual counseling -Doctor-patient health education -School-based prevention programs -Community-based interventions upstream -National public education/media campaigns -Policies reducing access or advertising unhealthy products -Economic incentives (e.g., cigarette taxes) 33 Successful Aging 34 Successful Aging (1)  Rowe & Kahn (1987)  Multidimensional, encompassing  the avoidance of disease and disability  the maintenance of high physical and cognitive function  sustained engagement in social and productive activities 35 Successful Aging (2)  Decline not inevitable  Avoid disease & disability: preventive medicine  Maintain high physical & cognitive function  Stay involved with life & living  Social support networks  Contributing to life in meaningful way 36 Successful Aging (3)  Dimensions:  Physical health  Financial security  Productivity & employment  Independence  Positive outlook, coping well  Activities w/ friends and family  Creative expression  Spirituality 37 Concepts Related to Successful Aging  Subjectivity & perception: “glass half full or half empty”  Life satisfaction stabilizes over time  Life satisfaction related to health, socioeconomic status, and relationships  Levy et al., 2009: age stereotypes older life  Self-efficacy  Retain control, self confidence in doing things  How we view ourselves influences our perceptions of well- being  Seek opportunity in challenges  (Ebersole & Hess, 1998) 38 Disparities in Aging Well  Differences in health care access & health status/outcomes of different population groups  Racial/ethnic minorities  Frail older adults  People with disabilities  Economic barriers  Low socioeconomic status  Lack of long-term care insurance  Non-economic barriers  Language, acculturation 39  Educational level Complementary & Alternative Medicine 40 Definitions  Complementary & alternative medicine (CAM)  Diverse medical & health care systems, practices, and products not part of conventional medicine  Complementary & alternative medicine are different  Complementary medicine: used together w/ conventional medicine  Aromatherapy to lessen discomfort post-surgery  Alternative medicine: used in place of conventional medicine  Diet to treat cancer instead of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy prescribed by conventional doctor 41 Major Types of CAM 1. Whole medical systems 2. Mind-body medicine 3. Biologically-based practices 4. Manipulative & body-based practices 5. Energy medicine 42 Whole Medical Systems (1)  Built on complete systems of theory & practice  Often evolved apart from conventional/Western medicine in US  Examples from Western cultures:  Homeopathic “Like cures like”: small, highly diluted quantities of medicinal substances given to cure symptoms; at higher dosage, would cause symptoms  Naturopathic medicine  Focus on body’s healing power  Practitioners help to promote through nutrition & lifestyle counseling, dietary supplements, medicinal plants, homeopathy, exercise, etc.  43 Whole Medical Systems (2) Examples from non-Western cultures:  Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Based on concept of balanced qi/vital energy flowing through body  Disease results from flow of qi being disrupted  Examples: herbal and nutritional therapy, restorative physical exercises, meditation, acupuncture   Ayurveda   44 Practiced on Indian continent for over 5000 years Diet and herbal remedies to balance the use of body, mind, and spirit in disease prevention and treatment Mind-Body Medicine  Techniques which enhance the mind’s capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms  Mainstream:  cognitive-behavioral therapy  CAM:  Meditation  Prayer  Therapies using creative outlets, i.e., art, music, dance 45 Biologically-Based Practices  Substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins  Dietary supplements  Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act (1994)(DSHEA)  Dietary supplements are considered foods, not drugs  Product taken by mouth (other than tobacco) to supplement the diet  Vitamins, herbs, minerals, amino acids  Enzymes, organ tissues, metabolites  No special requirements for labeling 46 Manipulative & Body-Based Practices  Manipulation and/or movement of body parts  Chiropractic manipulation  CAM whole medical system  Relationship between body structure (spine) & function, and how that affects health preservation/restoration  Osteopathic manipulation  Form conventional medicine focused on diseases arising from musculoskeletal system  All body systems work together: disturbance to one affects function elsewhere  Massage  Manipulate muscle and connective tissue to enhance function & promote well-being 47 Energy Medicine (1) Biofield therapies 1. Affect energy field surrounding body (fields not scientifically proven) Apply pressure and/or manipulate body by placing hands in & through field      48 Qi Gong: traditional Chinese medicine – movement, meditation, regulation of breathing Reiki (Japanese for universal life force): spiritual energy channeled through practitioner Therapeutic touch: laying on of hands – practitioner helps balance patient’s energy field imbalances Energy Medicine (2) 2. Bioelectromagnetic –based therapies  Unconventional use of electromagnetic fields, i.e., pulsed fields, magnetic fields, or alternating-current or direct-current fields  Electric and magnetic energies surrounding all electric devices  Earth produces EMFs (i.e., thunderstorm activity)   49 Examples: Magnetic therapy in knee wraps, bandages, etc., to relieve soreness in joints & muscles (sports injuries) o Stimulate nerve endings >> release of endorphins Chakra System 50 Acupuncture Meridians 51 Innovative Leaders in Health & Healing Techniques 52 Bruce Lipton, PhD  Biology of Belief, 2005, 2015  Developmental biology  Epigenetics  “Epigenetics is the study of cellular and physiological traits, or the external and environmental factors, that turn our genes on and off, and in turn, define how our cells actually read those genes.”  Power of subsconscious mind  “By rewiring the subconscious thoughts that negatively impact our cells, we have a far greater chance of healing” 53  iu https://www.brucelipt Candace Pert, PhD (1)  Chief of Brain Biochemistry in the Clinical Neuroscience Branch at the National Institute of Mental Health and Georgetown University Medical Center  Neuropeptides, emotions, and body-mind  Body’s “information system” has two major elements  the chemical substances known as neuropeptides and  the receptors into which they fit  Painful memories  Suppressed failures, disappointments, suffering, loss  If not released, fester into disease in the body 54 http://candacepert Candace Pert, PhD (2)  “Somato-emotional cyst”  A primitive body defense response in which the injury, and the emotions therein encoded, are walled off from the rest of the body, and never truly resolve.  Emotion and memory stored in glands, organs, and tissues  How can such emotions be released?  Through many modalities, including body work, meditations, breathing, spiritual practice, EFT, and many other diverse psychosomatic modalities 55 http://candacepert Joe Dispenza  Background in neuroscience, chiropractic care, hypnosis  Research areas  Fields of neuroscience, epigenetics, and quantum physics to explore the science behind spontaneous remissions.  Modalities  Meditation, breathwork, expanded awareness  To help people heal themselves of illnesses, chronic conditions, terminal diseases, and expand consciousness 56 Effective Meditation: Getting Beyond the Analytical Mind  Meditation  Key purpose  Move beyond the analytical mind  Analytical mind  Separates the conscious mind from subconscious mind  Paying attention, observation: skill  Can get better with practice  e.g., sports (golf, tennis) 57 Scale of Emotions Associated with Different Energies Elevated Emotions (Fastest Frequency) • Bliss Freedom Love Joy High Emotions (Higher Frequency) • Appreciation Gratitude Greater Density/Matter (Slower Frequency) • Guilt Shame Suffering Victimization Survival Emotions • Pain 58 Dispenza, 201 Quantum Energy  Realm of quantum  Implicate order where everything is connected (Bohm, 1980)  Explicate order  Reality of solid, well-defined bodies  Definite positions in space  Specific duration in time  Implicate order  Superpositions, enfoldings, interpenetrations, space that is non-local  Image of metronomes or grandfather clocks moving in unison 59 Bohm, 1980; Bohm & Hiley, 2009 Brainwave Activity  Beta  Thinking brain  Conscious mind  Alpha  Theta  Delta 60 Dispenza, 201 Brainwave Activity 5% Analytical Mind >>>> Subconscio us Mind (Autonomic Nervous System) 61 • Beta • Conscious Mind • Thinking Brain . . 95% Programs & Habits • Alpha • Theta • Delta Dispenza, 201 Flow of Energy from Neocortex to Limbic Brain 62 Dispenz nearbyca Wrap-Up  Behavioral risk factors  Behavior change interventions  Successful aging  Complementary & alternative medicine 63



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