quantitative investigation

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Quantitative Report
Assessment Booklet
Module Code and Name: IOS4303 – Evaluating Sport, Exercise and Health
Module Coordinator: Dudley Graham

1750-word report of a quantitative investigation
Students will complete a report based upon a research project conducted throughout the course of the module. Students will outline the purpose of the report, report methods of data collection and analysis, report that analysis and provide an interpretation of their result.
Assessment Criteria
Outline an investigation to explore a research question or hypotheses.
Conduct and report appropriate methods of data collection and analysis following the conventions of sport, exercise, and health sciences.
Provide appropriate evidence to support results and conclusion.
Interpret results in a sport, exercise, and health sciences context.
Demonstrate appropriate style of written communication including cohesive structure, correct grammar and punctuation including correctly presenting citations and references using the conventions of APA.
Submission Date: Monday May 16th, 2022, by 12 p.m.

To complete this task, you must use the research question and dataset assigned to you. All sections of this work must be completed by you independently and should only represent work you have done.
Deadline and word length information given in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Table of Key Information for Quantitative Report:

Word length

Is this a word count, word limit or word equivalent?

This is a word count. The work should be within ±10% of the word count, but the allocation of marks assigned to section of the task is not based upon this.

Length (in number of words)?

1750

Are references included?

Yes, references cited in text are included when calculating the number of words used. The reference list is not included.

Are graphs/tables included?

No, any information given in tables and figures (including labels, titles, and notes) are not included when calculating the number of words used [this includes all annotation of JASP output in appendices].

Are appendices included?

Yes, appendices are expected to support your analysis, but information given in the appendices are not included when calculating the number of words used.

Penalty

There is a penalty accrued on this assignment for going over or under the number of words specified above by 10%. With additional penalties for greater deviation.

Deadline and formatting

Deadline

Monday May 16th, 2022, by 12 p.m.

Weighting

This assignment is worth 70% of your module mark

Formatting

You must follow the following guidelines in formatting your work:
Use Font size 12
Use font Calibri
Margins should be set to Narrow
Put your student number in the top left header
Page number in top right in header
1.5 line spacing
Full Justification
References must follow JSS/APA 7th style (use guide on Moodle)
Tables and Figures must be formatted to JSS guidelines (use guides on Moodle)
All work must be written in formal language, no contractions of words (i.e. write ‘do not’ rather than ‘don’t’).

The formatting of the report is worth 5% of the report mark.
1% will be deducted for each deviation from the formatting guide

Writing Style
Your writing should follow the academic writing style.
We assess how you have paraphrased researcher(s) work, any work that does not correctly cite the author(s) will be heavily penalised.
You do not want to be accused of plagiarism.
Word guides have been provided for each section. These are only a guide of how much you could write for each section. You are being assessed on the quality of your points not the quantity of words.
The overall word limit for this report is 1750 words. There is a tolerance of ± 10% to account for the inclusion of citations and quotations from the literature. Therefore, you must not exceed 1925 words or be below 1575.
There is 5% penalty accrued on this assignment for going over or under the word limit for the whole report by more than 10% of 1750words. For each additional 10% deviation from the word count a further 10% will be deducted from the final mark. The minimum mark is 0%

Deviation from word count

Deviation in words

Penalty deducted from final mark

±10%

±175

-5%

±20%

±350

-10%

±30%

±525

-20%

±40%

±700

-30%

±50%

±875

-40%

±60%

±1050

-50%

±70%

±1225

-60%

±80%

±1400

-70%

±90%

±1575

-80%

±100%

±1750

-90%

Example:
If your work was 30% over the word count and I awarded your report 60%, you would be penalised 20% and thus your report mark would be 40%

Indicative Reading: Quantitative Analysis
The following texts are available as wither eBooks or physical copies in the library. The texts will help you with understanding the analysis you will need to complete.
Quantitative Analysis
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2ndEd.). New York, U.S.A.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. eBook
Davis, C. (2019). Statistical testing with jamovi and JASP open source software: Psychology. Norwich: Vor Press.
Fallowfield, J.L., Hale, B.J. & Wilkinson, D.M. (2005). Using statistics in sport and exercise science research. Chichester: Lotus. Shelfmark:796.028/FAL
Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS (Various Editions available). London: Sage Shelf mark: 519.5/FIE
Goss-Sampson, M. A. (2020). Statistical analysis in JASP: A guide for students (JASP V 0.14). https://jasp-stats.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Statistical-Analysis-in-JASP-A-Students-Guide-v14-Nov2020.pdf.
Halter, C. P. (2018). Classical statistical analysis using JASP: Volume one frequentist approaches. San Diego, CA: CreativeMinds Press Group.
Howell, D. C. (2013). Fundamental statistics for behavioral sciences (8thEd.). Boston, MA: Cengage. eBook
Hinton, P.R (2004). Statistics explained (2nded.). Hove: Routledge. eBook & Shelf mark: 519.5/HIN
O’Donoghue, P. (2012). Statistics for sport and exercise studies: An introduction. London: Routledge. eBook
Study Skills
Price, M. (2014). Lab reports and projects in sport and exercise science: A guide for students. Pearson
Cottrell, S. (2013). The study skills handbook. Palgrave MacMillan

Literature related to the projects are available on the Moodle page in the Data Collection section.

The project you have been assigned comes from the data collection sessions (see Moodle page for details on your project).
The project you have been assigned is listed in the IOS4303 Quantitative Report Question Allocation document – see Assessment Section.
We have split the projects into small component parts.
You must ensure that you complete the question allocated to you. Doing the wrong question or with the wrong variables or conditions will limit your ability to earn marks.
Experiment
Q1 Does Exercise Intensity Affect Decision Making Reaction Time?
Q2 Does Type of Physical Preparation Affect Athletic Performance?
Q3 Does Feedback Frequency Affect The Learning Of A Novel Aiming/Shooting Task?
Q4 Does Audio Condition Affect Exercise Completion Time And Enjoyment?
The question allocation sheet is on the Moodle page in the assessment section.

Support
Data for the projects will be available within the Assessment Section – Data will be made available from the 25th of April 2022. You will be able to work on your assignment within your Statistics Practical sessions.
We will not be read drafts of your work. Tutorials will be available to ask questions about the assignment to check your understanding.
The content of the computer lessons in week 34(11) and 35(12) will be devoted to helping you complete your report. Drop-in sessions will be available on Moodle (via Teams) during normal lesson hours in week 36(12) where you can ask a question about your report.
The Assessment Forum can be used to ask general questions about the report.
This assessment guide includes an explanation of what you should include in each section of the report.
The research papers that were referred to in the design of the project are available in the Data Collection section on Moodle. Use those as the foundation of your reading.
There are two how to sections on the Moodle page. There is a How to Guides that includes documents on how to reference, format tables and figures as well as the statistics formatting guide. There is a How to Videos for JASP which includes how to complete all the analysis we have done on the module.

Report Structure
Your submission should follow this structure:
Title
Introduction
Method
Results
Discussion
References
Appendices
(There is no abstract)

This section should be approximately 500 words and is worth 20% of this assessment
Assessment Criteria:
Outline an investigation to explore a research question or hypotheses.
The Title should:
Clearly indicate the area of research conducted within this report.
It is not the research question you have been set!
The title should be indicative of and specific to the content of the study.
The Introduction should:
Provide a review of literature to explain the theory that was tested with this research question. Provide a minimum of five different pieces of Sports Science literature to support your justification.
You may use more.
You will be marked down if you use less.
You may use the same reference multiple times.
Use the essay writing guidance from Semester 1 Questioning Sport Exercise and Health and Fundamentals of Sports Therapy to help review the literature and build a rationale/justification for your study.
Write thematically and work broad to specific.
I would recommend looking at the two study skills texts to support your work here, in particular Price, who explains writing style and structure of each section. See indicative reading section.
This section should end with your experimental (alternative) hypothesis

This section should be approximately 550words and is worth 25% of this assessment
Assessment Criteria:
Conduct and report appropriate methods of data collection and analysis following the conventions of sport, exercise, and health sciences.
The method should be made up of four parts. Use a subheading to indicate the start of each section.
Participants
Research Design
Procedure
Statistical Analysis
The Participants section should include:
A description of the sample including:  
Sample Size
The population participants were recruited from
Whether participants provide informed consent
Provide a suitable description of the physical characteristics of the sample
The number of males and females who completed the activity
Present the mean ± SD for males and females separately and combined of:
Age,
Height,
Mass.
Present this information in a table.

The Research Design section should include:
A statement of the type of research design used. Use the language you have learned in the module to describe your project.
Repeated Measures,
Independent Groups
Mixed Design
An explanation of what the Independent Variable(s) was, including a definition of the conditions within the independent variable(s).
This would include how participants were grouped or the order of conditions.
A statement of what the Dependent Variables was.
You will explain how the DV was measured in the procedure.
The Procedure section should include:
A description of the how the data was collected.
The reader should be able to replicate the methods from what you have written.
Include descriptions of any equipment used.
Refer to at least two pieces of methodological literature in this section as appropriate.
The experiments were planned with this in mind, and each method has this opportunity.
The procedure may contain a Data Analysis section:
This section is not applicable to all research questions, it will depend on your project.
This section is presented if there are any manipulations to data prior to statistical analysis.
Calculation of the data such as vertical jump height from flight time or coding of the enjoyment questionnaire.

The Statistical Analysis should include:
A conclusion regarding the distribution of the data including the criteria used with a reference
The checks should be presented only in the appendices including the calculated zskewness and zkurtosis ratio values.
The descriptive statistics used.
The inferential statistic(s) that were used including a reason for the choice of tests.
You will likely have to complete multiple tests to analyse your project, a minimum of three difference tests.
It can be the same type of test used 3 or more times.
This will depend on the design and assumption checks.
Effect size statistic(s) including criteria used (include the values) with a reference.
The significance level set.
The software used with version number.

This section should be approximately 150 words and is worth 20% of this assessment.
Assessment Criteria
Provide appropriate evidence to support results and conclusion.
Interpret results in a sport, exercise, and health sciences context.

You MUST perform and report a MINIMUM OF THREE inferential difference statistical tests to answer your research question.
The number of tests you complete will vary based upon the project you have; we have designed each project to provide a similar workload for each analysis.
It may be that you use the same test three times, it is not the case that you need to use three different types of inferential test. The choice of test will depend upon the research design and the assumption checks of the data.
Structure of Results
Provide a clear description of the pattern of the data using descriptive statistics. Use table and graphs to help you here.
Format tables and graphs according to conventions.
Clearly state the conclusions of your inferential tests, including the direction of any differences found from your tests, this may be linked with your description of the pattern of the data.
Inferential statistical test results should be reported using the international reporting conventions demonstrated during classes/videos (shown below).
NEVER include JASP output tables in the results section of the report.
You MUST include JASP output for your analysis as an appendix to the report to verify your results.
If you do not provide JASP output of your analysis, NO marks will be awarded for the results section.

Reporting Conventions
Statistic
Examples
Detailed guidelines
Wilcoxon

W = 119.0, rb = 0.983, p < 0.001
“There was a significantly large decrease from pre-test to post-test, W = 119.0, rb = 0.983, p < 0.001.”

Report W, rb and p-value, for the p-value and report both rb and p to three decimals with letters italicized and include the zero before the full stop. Report the W to one decimal only.
You can additionally also report the 95% CI for the rb value (see descriptive statistics for how to report a confidence interval).

Mann-Whitney

U = 3851.0, rb = -0.054, p = 0.534
“There was no significant difference between the two groups, U = 3851.0, rb = -0.054, p = 0.534, and the effect size also indicated only a trivial effect present.”

Report U, rb and p-value, and report rb and p to three decimals with letters italicized and include the zero before the full stop on the r- and p-value. If rb is negative, report it as such.
Report the U to one decimal only. This is labelled as W in JASP
Report the number of participants in each group (though if this is presented in the methods section under participants, there’s no need to repeat here). You can additionally also report the 95% CI for the rb value (see descriptive statistics for how to report a confidence interval).

t-test (including Paired Samples t-test, Independent Samples t-test including Welch’s t-test)

t199 = -8.199, d = 0.539, p < 0.001
“There was a significant difference between the two conditions, t199 = -8.199, d = 0.539, p < 0.001.”
t22 = 0.762, d = 0.245, p = 0.454
“The two groups were not significantly different, t22 = 0.762, d = 0.245, p = 0.454.”

Letters t, p, d are presented in italics, with small letters used for all.
The p-value is reported to three decimal places and includes a zero before the full stop. The test statistic (t-value) and effect size d are also reported to three decimals, and includes the minus sign if present.
The effect size d is calculated as difference in
means / pooled standard deviation (if using JASP).
Degrees of freedom are presented in subscript and the significance level should be presented prior to the reporting of inferential results.
If reporting Welch’s t-test, follow the above format, and report df rounded to nearest whole number.

This section should be approximately 550 words and is worth 20% of this assessment.
Assessment Criteria
Interpret results in a sport, exercise, and health sciences context.
The basic structure for a discussion follows:
Paragraph stating main findings
State the key findings form the results – this is different to writing the statistical conclusions from the results.
Consideration of the direction of your results (including effect size) in relation to the direction of results of previous literature
Put your work into context by comparing your finding to other research reports. Do your findings:
Support/Not Support.
Link to the theory.
Stay close to your data (only discuss what you measured). Each paragraph should reference your results.
This is not a literature review; you are discussing your findings.
This section should make up most of your discussion.

Theoretical explanation of results – why did this happen?
What reason can be provided that explains your results? This should link to the theory that you explained within the introduction. Consider expected and unexpected findings.
There may be competing theories that could be applied to your research findings. Consider all competing theories (from literature). Indicate which you think is most likely.
Implications of your results
How can these results be used/applied in the real world? If we find an effect how will that influence practice in your area?
Limitations of your method.
What could you have done better with the data collection? Describe any problems with the method. Procedures often involve compromises, consider how those compromises affected the validity of your data or confidence in findings. Be careful here, avoid using anecdotal limitations, unless you have measured evidence to support your point do not include. For example, motivation of participants is often questioned, but unless you asked each participant about their motivation and measured it, then you should avoid such a limitation.

Recommendations for future research
Consider the next research topic that would follow on from your findings. This is not about correcting the limitations of your method.
Conclusion
Summarising key points from discussion. Make this a meaningful statement. What is the take home message? Throw away comments about limitations or stating that more research is needed should be avoided.

This section is worth 5% of this assessment. The reference list does not count towards the word count
Assessment Criteria
Demonstrate appropriate style of written communication including cohesive structure, correct grammar and punctuation including correctly presenting citations and references using the conventions of APA.
Use the APA 7th Edition Guide on Moodle. The section will be marked according to the following criteria.

5 = Perfect no errors,
4 = Minor errors in formatting (consistent presentation),
3 = Minor errors in formatting (inconsistent presentation),
2 = Major errors including missing information and or insufficient number of references used (consistent presentation),
1 = Major errors including missing information, or insufficient number of references and or missing references (inconsistent presentation),
0 = No citations or references or attempt to use guidelines.

As indicated above, a minimum of nine references are indicated. I would recommend you find more as this will support your writing and give you a greater understanding of the topic area.
Reference lists that have less than five references will be only be able to achieve a maximum of two for the reference list.

This section is worth 5% of this assessment. The appendices does not count towards the word count
Assessment Criteria:
Provide appropriate evidence to support results and conclusion.
Appendices are a section that provides support for the main body of the report.
SUBMIT THE APPENDICES AS AN EXCEL DOCUMENT
JASP output of all statistical tests you have performed MUST be included. We use your output to verify your results section.
If you do not include the output, we cannot verify your results and thus you will not be awarded any marks for your results section (20%) or appendices (5%).
Normal Distribution checks including the calculated zskewness and zkurtosis ratios should be presented in this section and Histograms and Boxplots of your data.
You do not have to format these graphs according to academic guidelines, but please resize the graphs to a more appropriate size (10cm by 15cm approximately).
I would suggest having two sheets in your Excel file
Sheet 1 Normal Distribution checks including graphs
Sheet 2 Inferential Statistics
Uploaded the Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet named with Student number –
2009999 – Quantitative Report Appendices – Q1a
This is NOT the same as the data sheet.

You must submit two files.
The research report
Uploaded a Microsoft Word file named with your Student Number and Question number including part e.g.
2109999 – Quantitative Report – Q1a
Quantitative Report Appendices
Upload a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet name with your Student Number and Question number including part e.g.
2109999 – Quantitative Report Appendices – Q1a
Do not write your name on your work on your report or appendices. This will cost you are mark if you do as you are violating my right to mark your work anonymously.
Do not remove the file name docx or xlsx when naming your file. Changing the file name makes your work unreadable.

To use the sheet in JASP you will need to save the file as a CSV UTF-8 Comma Delmited file.

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