The Likelihood of Pandemics Occurrence and Their Spread Analysis

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View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.1HIV/AIDSUniversity AffiliationStudent NameDate2IntroductionPandemics can be defined as large infectious disease outbreaks that are known to increasethe rate of mortality and morbidity over a wide geographic region or the whole world.Pandemics cause adverse social, economic, and political consequences or disruption. Thelikelihood of pandemic occurrence has increased in recent decades because of the increasedtraveling and integration of people across the world. Other factors like urbanization, overexploitation of the natural environment, and change in land use, diet, and lifestyle have increasedthe likelihood of a pandemic and its spread. Countries all over the world have been puttingsignificant measures and resources into preventing and combating pandemics whenever theyhappen. HIV/AIDS is one of the pandemics that have severely affected the lives of millions ofpeople in the world and caused deaths and other social, economic, and political challenges.Disease DescriptionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a unique virus that is known to attack theimmune system of the human body. The body’s immune system plays a significant role infighting diseases and infections. When HIV gets its way inside the body, the viruses multiply orincrease, hence affecting the immune system. HIV targets the white blood cells that are known asCD4 cells and make copies of themselves. Eventually, HIV kills the CD4 cells, and themultiplied HIV copies continue to attack other CD4 cells this cycle goes on and on as timepasses. The body’s immune system tries to attack the viruses by producing more CD4 cells, but itreaches a time when the CD4 cells are overpowered. This is when the number of viruses in thebody becomes more than the CD4 cells produced. The attack on the immune system makes oneprone to other illnesses and diseases because the immune system cannot attack them regardless3of the type of disease, including common colds. This is where a patient develops AcquiredImmunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition where the immune system is weak and proneto many different opportunistic illnesses and diseases.History of HIV/AIDSAccording to Melhuish & Lewthwaite (2018), HIV is believed to have originated fromnon-human primates in West and Central Africa. There are two major types of HIV which areHIV-1 and HIV-2. Out of the two, HIV-1 is known to be more virulent and easily transmitted,making it cause most of the infections in the world. HIV-1 is very closely related to the virusesfound in chimpanzees which are found in Central African forests in countries like EquatorialGuinea, Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of the Congo(McLaren & Fellay, 2021). HIV-2 is less transmittable as compared to HIV-1 and is largelyfound in West Africa. Some of the close relatives of HIV-2 are viruses found in sooty mangabeyand Old-World monkey that is commonly found in Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, andSenegal.According to Furlich (2018), it is believed that HIV originated from the DemocraticRepublic of Congo in 1920 after the virus crossed to humans from chimpanzees. The virus hadbeen in existence for about six decades, with little being known about it until the 1980s. Thismeans that the data of the people who had previously been infected with the virus before the1980s was not known. Some data suggest that HIV began in the mid-1970s, and by 1980, thevirus had spread to five continents in the world, which were North America, Europe, SouthAmerica, Australia, and Africa. About 300,000 people had already been infected (Avert, 2019).In the 1990s, the existence of HIV was evident among people from all over the world. HIV-4related deaths started becoming normal and noticed where even young people also died as aresult of the disease. For example, on 8 April 1990, a young man called Ryan White died of Aidsat the age of 18 years (Avert, 2019). A lot of protests in the United States were experienced inJune 1990 when people were against the immigration policy that had been passed to stop peoplewith HIV from entering the United States. By the end of 1990, approximately 307,000 peoplehad already been infected with the virus. An HIV testing kit was officially licensed by FDA inMay 1992, which enabled health care professionals to test the virus within 10 minutes easily(Avert, 2019). In 1994, the Public Health Service in the USA recommended …



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